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Ch.6 Muscles

Muscle cells Muscle fibers
Buttocks Gluteus Maximus
Chest Muscle Pectoral Muscle
Anterior thigh muscle Quadriceps Femoris
Posterior thigh muscle Hamstrings
Back muscle Latissimus Dorsi
Muscle Responsible for Smiling Zygomaticus
Muscle Responsible for Sneering Levator Labii superioris
Muscle Responsible for Frowning Depressor Anguli Oris
Closes the Eyelid Orbicularis Oculi
Puckers the mouth Orbicularis oris
flattens the cheeks buccinator
changes the shape of the tongue intrinsic tongue muscles
moves the tongue extrinsic tongue muscles
adenosine triphosphate atp
the ability for the muscle to respond to a stimulus excitability
the ability for the muscle to contract contracility
the ability for the muscle to extend extensibility
the connective tissue sheath that is directly upon the whole muscle epimysium
mastication chewing
4 pairs of mastication muscles 2 pair of pterygoids, temporalis, and masseter
sternocleidomastoid later neck muscle and prime mover. rotates and abducts head
raises the eyebrows occipitofrontalis
ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched elasticity
contract quickly and fatigue quickly fast-twitch fibers
contract slowly and are more resistant to fatigue slow-twitch fibers
muscle tone refers to constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time. keeps head up and back straight. muscle tone
anaerobic respiration without oxygeen
aerobic respiration with oxygen
oxygen debt amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose and replenish the depleted stores of creatine phosphate stores in muscle cells
orgin most stationary end of the muscle
insertion the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement
belly portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion
antagonists muscles that work in opposition to one another
among a group of synergists, if one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement prime mover
muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements synergists
where is ATP produced mitochondria
muscle twitch a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers
tetany where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing
threshold a muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level
point that the muscle fiber will contract maximally all-or-none response
recruitment the increase in number of motor units being activated
isometric the length of the muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process
isotonic the amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes
muscle fatigue when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells
how are muscles described some are named according to their location, size, orientation of fibers, shape, origin, insertion, and their function, etc.
Fascia connective tissue located outside the epimysium. surrounds and separates muscles
a muscle is composed of numerous visible bundles called muscle fasciculi
fasciculi is surrounded by loose connective tissue perimysium
thoracic muscles muscles that move the thorax
erector spinae group of muscles on each side f the back
external intercostals elevate the ribs during inspiration
internal intercostals contract during forced expiration
diaphragm accomplishes quiet breathing
on each side of the linea alba rectus abdomunis
tendinous inscriptions crosses the rectus abdominis at three or more location
nuclei muscle fiber that is a single cell containing several nuclei
endomysium each fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath
myofibirils a threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other
myofibrils consist of 2 major kinds of protein fibers actin & myosin
actin myofilaments thin myofilaments. they resemble 2 minute strands of pearls twisted together
myosin myofilaments thick myofilaments. they resemble bundles of minute golf clubs
actin and myosin myofilaments form highly order units sacromeres
sacromeres joined end to end to form the myofibril
motor neurons nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle
motor unit a single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fiber it innervates
axons enter the muscles and branch. each branch that connects to the muscle neuromuscular junction or synapse
when a muscle cell is stimulates the membrane characteristics change briefly, the brief reversal back of the change is? action potential
the charge difference across the membrane resting membrane potential
the enlarged nerve terminal presynaptic terminal
the space between the presynaptic termial and the muscle cell synpatic cleft
each presynpatic terminal contains synaptic vesicles
synaptic vesicles secretes a neurotransmitter acetylcholine
acetylcholine diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to the postsynaptic terminal causing a change in the postsynaptic cell
the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft between the neuron and muscle cells is rapidly broken down by an enzyme acetylcholinesterase
Created by: elizabowen
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