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3U Chemistry Unit 4

Solutions Unit 4

homogeneous a gas, aqueous or solid mixture with the same or uniform composition
heterogeneous you can see the separate components of the mixture
solvent the substance in a solution present in the greatest amount
solute the smaller portion of a solution that dissolves in a solvent
aqueous Water-based
solubility maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given quantity of solvent at a specific temperature. It is a quantifiable physical property (eg. 2g will dissolve in 100 g)
saturated a solution cannot dissolve any more solute
supersaturated a very unstable solution that contains more dissolved solute than a saturated one at the same temperature
Hydrogen bond (HB) force of attraction between a partially charged hydrogen dipole and a partially negatively dipole
Ion-dipole (ID) force of attraction between a fully-charged ion and a partially charged dipole
Dipole-Dipole (DD) force of attraction between two partially charged (but opposite) dipoles
London Dispersion Forces (LD) force of attraction between a momentary positive dipole and a momentary negative dipole on any atom or molecule
hydration shell when the polar water molecule surrounds ions or other polar molecules causing them to dissolve
Concentration is the quantity of solute per unit quantity of solvent, expressed as a percent, in parts per million (or billion) or as moles per litre
standard solution a solution with a known concentration
dissociation occurs when ionic compounds break apart into component ions when dissolved in solution
Arrhenius Acids ionize in water to produce one or more hydrogen ions
Arrhenius Bases dissociate in water to produce one or more hydroxide ions
Acid-Base Indicators weak acids that have a characteristic colour at certain pH values
strong acids or bases 100% of the H+ ions (as in acids) or OH- ions (as in bases) dissociate completely in water
Concentrated a solution that contains a great deal of solute
Dilute a solution that contains a small amount of solute
Titration an analytical chemistry technique used to find an unknown concentration of an acid or base solution
pH is a measure of the strength (concentration, in mol/L) of the hydrogen ion. Every 1 increase in pH also means a ten-fold increase in hydroxide ion concentration and a ten-fold decrease in hydrogen ion concentration..
weak acids or bases less than 2% of the H+ ions (as in acids) or OH- ions (as in bases) dissociate in water
equivalence point the point in a neutralization when the # of moles of acid equals the # of moles of base (according to the balanced equation)
Created by: jcepella


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