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Chemistry - terms

electrolytic solution conducts electricity - contains ions
AVOGADRO NUMBER 1 mol = 6•10²³ atoms
Strong acids With Cl, HNO3, HBr, HI, H2SO4
Lattice Energy Energy released to put together (or separate) 2 ions that form a crystal. chargee of ions ⬆️, LE ⬆️ radius of atoms ⬆️, LE ⬇️ ⬇️ LE, ⬆️ soluble in water LE = (K•Q1•Q2) / R
Allotrope Different forms of an element; #O2 and O3; Carbon: diamond and graphite (conducts electricity)
Density d = m/v
Molarity M = mol/L (moles of solute / L of solution) Also called molar concentration
Molality (m) m = mol/kg (moles of solute / kg of solution)
Mole fraction
Xsolute = moles of solute / total moles of solution Xsolvent = moles of solvent / total moles of solution Xsolute + Xsolvent = 1 - useful when calculating partial pressure (Pa) given the total pressure (Pt) in a vessel -> Pa = Xa•Pt
Formula: Q = m•c•∆T Q = amount of heat (J) m = mass (g) c = specific heat capacity (J/g•°C) ∆T = variation of temperature (°C)
1atm 760mm Hg (1 Torr)
Amphoteric Can behave as acid (loses a proton = - H+) AND base (receives a proton = + H+)
Potential Energy Energy released when bonds are broken G > L > S - releases energy → exo → ⬆️PE - absorbs energy → endo → ⬇️PE (not really related to Temperature) - changes when the substance changes between physical states (when there's no temperature change)
n → atomic number (Z) X → element ~ → atomic mass n - number of p+ (if you use electron configuration, = the sum of "exponents" [e-]) atomic mass - molar mass of an element (1 mol of X has atomic mass Yg) "Weight"
Atomic radius (AR) Atom's size more levels, bigger less p+, bigger ↓← (increases like that on the periodic table)
Ionization energy (IE) Energy needed to REMOVE 1 e- →↑ (increases like that on the periodic table)
Electronegativity (EN) How well an atom can ATTRACT e- F O N Cl Br I S C P H + <———————————————— - →↑ (increases like that on the periodic table)
Electron affinity (EA) Energy absorbed or released when an e- is ADDED to an atom →↑ (increases like that on the periodic table)
Energy released to put together (or separate) 2 ions that form a crystal. LE = (K•Q1•Q2) / R #chargee of ions ⬆️, LE ⬆️ ____#radius of atoms ⬆️, LE ⬇️ ____#⬇️ LE, ⬆️ soluble in water
Litmus paper Basic - blue; acidic - red
Van't Hoff Factor (i) Number of particles that a compound breaks into when it dissolves in a solution. _____ ⬆️i ⬆️boiling/melting point___________ ∆T=Kb (constant) • M • i Examples: NaCl → Na+ + Cl- ≈> i=2;__AgNO3 → Ag+ + NO3- ≈> i=2
Entalphy ∆H = - → exo; ___ ∆H = + → endo
Activation Energy Difference between the reactants and the transition state. If it finishes higher than it started = ENDO; ___ if it finishes lower, EXO
Gibbs Free Energy ∆G = ∆H - T • ∆S (entalphy - temperature • entrophy) ∆G = - → spontaneous reaction; ___ ∆G = + → non spontaneous reaction
Vapor pressure Equilibrium (rate of evaporation of liquid = rate of condensation of gas) pressure of a vapor above its liquid. Factors that affect V.P.: #Temperature: ⬆️T, ⬆️ V.P ___ #Types of molecules: intermolecular forces ⬆️, VP⬇️; intermolecular forces ⬇️, VP⬆️
Le Chatelier's principle - equilibrium shift 1. Concentration: increase in one side, the equation "goes" to the other. _._._._._._._._._._._._._._._._._._._._._._._ 2. Temperature: ↑T - goes to ENDO +; ↓T - goes to EXO - 3. Pressure: ↑P - goes to less volume (smaller coef); ↓P - goes to bigger volume (bigger coef). _._._._._._._._._._._. 4. Catalyst: no shift!! Just makes faster! (Decreases Activation Energy)
Entrophy Degree of disorder Solids = ↓E; Gas = ↑E
Created by: ka_martins