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Exam 4/ Chapters 12,15 and 21

The three major structural parts of the earth are core, mantle and crust
The second most abundant element in the earth's crust is silicon
The majority of metals and minerals come from the lithosphere
The inorganic portion of the lithosphere is made up of silicon and nonmetals like oxygen, sulfur and carbon chemically combined with metals
Pure quartz is composed of silicon and oxygen
Which of the following is NOT a major component of the earth's rocks and minerals? A) carbonates B) organic compounds C) oxides D) silicates organic compounds
Calcium carbonate is NOT found in A) seashells. B) chalcopyrite. C) pearls. D) stalactites. chalcopyrite
Which material is characterized by a two-dimensional sheetlike arrangement of SiO4 tetrahedra? mica
Great quantities of ________ have been used to insulate furnaces, heating ducts, and steam pipes. asbestos
Which of the following is NOT a silicate? A) mica B) marble C) asbestos D) zircon marble
As opposed to most solids, when glass is heated, it gradually softens over a wide temperature range.
Cement is a complex mixture of calcium and aluminum silicates
Clays have widely varying compositions, but basically they are aluminum silicates
Glass can be colored because of the addition of ________ compounds to make a green color. chromium
Copper is NOT commonly used for A) automobile bodies. B) electrical wire. C) roofing material. D) plumbing. automobile bodies
In the production of iron, "coke" is used. Coke is previously heated coal
Steel is formed by combining iron, carbon and transition metals such as chromium and nickel
The name of an ore from which aluminum can be produced is bauxite
Steel is an alloy that always contains which metal? A) aluminum B) copper C) iron D) lead Iron
Which of the following metals does the United States import from other countries? indium lithium palladium
When scrap metal is recycled to make new iron and steel products, there is also a reduction in energy consumption. water pollution. air pollution.
What is NOT a potential problem with a sanitary landfill? -A landfill may leak and contaminate groundwater. -Materials in a landfill decompose more slowly than materials that are exposed to environmental conditions. -The landfill will eventually fill up
Every day, the world population goes up by 200,000 people
The SI unit of energy is the A) joule. B) calorie. C) gram. D) watt joule
Approximately what percentage of the total solar radiation that falls upon the earth is immediately reflected back into space? A) 15% B) 30% C) 45% D) 70% 30%
The solar energy-absorbing molecules of plants that power photosynthesis are called A) carbohydrates. B) photovoltaics. C) solarases. D) chlorophylls. chlorophylls
How many joules of energy will a stock tank heater rated at 400 watts use in a 48 hour period? A) 400 B) 400 × 48 × 60 C) 400 × 3600 D) 400 × 48 × 3600 400 × 48 × 3600
All of the following examples are classified as potential energy EXCEPT A) energy stored by position. B) energy in nuclear particles. C) energy of a moving object. D) energy in chemical bonds energy of a moving object
Which of the following is a product of photosynthesis? A) CO2 B) H2O C) H2S D) O2 O2
Burning 1.000 mol of methane in oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water produces 803 kJ of energy. How much energy is produced when 4.000 mol of methane is burned? A) 358.0 kJ B) 1606 kJ C) 1205 kJ D) 3212 kJ 3212 kJ
The decomposition of 2 mol of water to hydrogen and oxygen requires 137 kcal of energy. The rxn of hydrogen and oxygen to form 2 mol of water A) requires 137 kcal. B) releases 137 kcal. C) requires more than 137 kcal. D) releases more than 137 kcal. releases 137 kcal
Which of the following will cause the rate of a chemical reaction to speed up? A) raising the temperature B) increasing the concentration of reactants C) adding a catalyst D) All of these will speed up the rate of a reaction raising the temperature increasing the concentration of reactants adding a catalyst
A heat pump requires energy to move heat from a colder object (outside of a house) to a hotter object (inside of the house) is a real life observation of which thermodynamic law? A) the first law B) the second law C) the third law D) the fourth law the second law
A refrigerator requires energy to move heat from a colder object (inside of refrigerator) to a hotter object (outside of the refrigerator) is a real life observation of which law of thermodynamics? A) first law B) second law C) third law D) fourth law second law
________ is the measure of the dispersal of energy in a system. A) Entropy B) Enthalpy C) Heat D) Calories Entropy
Which physical state has the greatest entropy? A) solid B) liquid C) gas D) All have the same entropy gas
In any conversion of energy from one form to another, some of the energy ends up as A) entropy. B) heat. C) electricity. D) radioactivity heat
The number of possible microstates will be highest for a A) solid. B) liquid. C) gas. D) All will have the same number of microstates. gas
Which of the following will have the greatest amount of entropy? A) steam B) ice C) water D) All have the same amount of entropy steam
Which of the following is NOT a fossil fuel? A) coal B) natural gas C) petroleum D) wood wood
Which one of the following is a nonfuel? A) H2 B) CCl4 C) CH4 D) C8H18 CCl4
A substance that burns readily and releases significant amounts of energy is a(n) A) reducing agent. B) fuel. C) endotherm. D) catalyst fuel
The primary element in coal is A) carbon. B) silicon. C) oxygen. D) chlorine. carbon
The highest grade of coal is A) anthracite. B) bituminous. C) lignite. D) peat. anthracite
When coal is burned, mineral impurities are converted to A) sulfur dioxide gas that goes up the smokestack. B) carbon dioxide and water. C) metal oxide solids that remain behind as ash. D) All of the above are products of burning coal metal oxide solids that remain behind as ash
When coal burns, A) chemical energy is converted to heat energy. B) heat energy is created. C) chemical energy is destroyed. D) heat energy is converted to electrical energy. chemical energy is converted to heat energy.
When coal is heated in the absence of air, the condensed vapor collected during the heating is called A) coal. B) coke. C) coal tar. D) carbon. coal tar
Coal can be cleaned before it is burned. The flotation method separates coal from its major impurities by taking advantage of the difference in ________ of these materials. A) acidity B) combustion C) density D) volatility density
An advantage of natural gas as a fuel is that it is A) more abundant than coal. B) easy to locate and extract. C) the cleanest of the fossil fuels. D) the product is carbon and water. the cleanest of the fossil fuels
When natural gas is burned in insufficient air, ________ can be (a) major product(s). A) water B) carbon and soot C) methane D) octane carbon and soot
Natural gas burns w/ a relatively clean flame. Which of the following potential pollutants is produced in sig quantities during the combustion of natural gas in air? nitrogen oxides
The fraction from the distillation of crude petroleum that is slightly heavier than gasoline is called A) kerosene. B) heating oil. C) lubricating oil. D) asphalt. kerosene
Pure heptane would have an octane rating of A) 0. B) 50. C) 75. D) 100. 0
In general, a higher proportion of branched chain hydrocarbons in a gasoline formulation A) increases octane rating. B) decreases octane rating. C) burns cleaner. D) burns cooler. increases octane rating
Which substance is most effective in raising the octane rating of gasoline? A) benzene B) ethanol C) methyl tert-butyl ether D) tetraethyllead tetraethyllead
The heating of large hydrocarbon compounds with a catalyst in the absence of oxygen is called A) cracking. B) catalysis. C) reforming. D) flocculation cracking
Which of the following petroleum fractions has the highest boiling point? A) fuel oil B) gasoline C) heating oil D) lubricants lubricants
Which of the following products is NOT made from petroleum? A) plastics B) detergents C) perfumes D) tires tire
Control rods in a nuclear reactor are used to A) absorb neutrons and slow down fission. B) absorb neutrons and speed up fission. C) release neutrons and slow down fission. D) release neutrons and speed up fission absorb neutrons and slow down fission
Which problem do all power plants have in common? A) excess capacity B) release of radioactivity C) sulfur dioxide emission D) thermal pollution thermal pollution
A breeder reactor converts A) nonfissionable U-238 to fissionable U-235. B) nonfissionable U-238 to fissionable Pu-239. C) fissionable U-235 to fissionable U-238. D) fissionable U-235 to fissionable Pu-239. nonfissionable U-238 to fissionable Pu-239
Breeder reactors allow for the use of abundant and naturally occurring U-238 as a nuclear fuel
The principal fuel(s) for nuclear fusion would be A) uranium-235 and uranium-238. B) deuterium and tritium (2H and 3H). C) plutonium-238. D) water. deuterium and tritium
The state of matter characterized by atomic nuclei and free electrons is called a A) gas. B) liquid. C) solid. D) plasma. plasma
Which of the following statements best describes the status of nuclear fusion as an energy source? Nuclear fusion may help solve our energy problems in the future
Photovoltaic cells convert A) solar energy into chemical energy. B) solar energy into mechanical energy. C) solar energy into electrical energy. D) solar energy into heat energy. solar energy into electrical energy
Most solar cells are composed primarily of A) arsenic. B) sulfur. C) nickel. D) silicon. silicon
If very pure silicon is doped with a small amount of boron, the resulting crystal is called a(n) A) solar cell. B) n-type semiconductor C) p-type semiconductor D) battery p-type semiconductor
The most energy efficient method for converting biomass into useful energy is to distill wood in the absence of air to form methanol, which can be burned
Hydrogen gas has been proposed as a fuel of the future because A) it can be obtained cheaply by drilling. B) it can be extracted from seawater with no energy expenditure. C) it is nonflammable. D) it burns to produce water. it burns to produce water
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of using hydrogen as a fuel for cars? Hydrogen can be made from renewable resources.
Which of the following is NOT powered by the sun? A) the water cycle B) the winds C) geothermal energy D) biomass production the winds
The internal heat from the earth is due to A) absorbed solar radiation from the land. B) absorbed solar radiation from the oceans. C) radioactivity and gravitation forces in the earth's mantle and core. D) mysterious processes not well understood. radioactivity and gravitation forces in the earth's mantle and core
What is not true about using ocean energy to generate electricity. Water will drive a turbine to generate electricity when it flows out of a reservoir at high tide
Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is widely used to produce A) coal. B) natural gas. C) pure water. D) petroleum natural gas
The majority of household chemicals are A) cleaning agents. B) laundry products. C) cosmetics. D) paints. cleaning agents
Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and potassium carbonate (K2CO3) react with water to form an alkaline solution that has detergent properties. These compounds are present in A) detergents. B) lye based soaps. C) saponins. D) plant ashes plant ashes
Soap is A) a glycerol ester. B) a salt of a fatty acid. C) lithium sulfate. D) glycerol. a salt of a fatty acid
Floating soaps are A) composed of short chain fatty acids. B) composed of branched chain fatty acids. C) blown with air during processing. D) detergents blown with air during processing
In cleaning, soap acts as a(n) ________ between "dirt" and water. A) catalyst B) chemical reactant C) emulsifier D) insulator emulsifier
In acidic solutions, soaps are converted to A) salts. B) fatty acids. C) detergents. D) fats. fatty acids
An advantage of potassium soaps is that they are ________ than sodium soaps. A) softer B) harder C) more neutral D) stronger softer
Bathtub ring is caused by A) the action of ammonia with water. B) precipitation of soap by "hard" metal ions. C) rust formation from sulfur in the water. D) soap and water cause a ringing sound in the ears precipitation of soap by "hard" metal ions
Washing soda is A) sodium peroxide. B) sodium carbonate. C) sodium borate. D) sodium chloride. sodium carbonate
Water softeners remove all of the following ions EXCEPT A) Ca2+. B) Fe2+. C) Mg2+. D) Na+. Na+
Which of the following statements about soaps and detergents is NOT true? A) The hydrophilic end has the hydrocarbon chain. B) The hydrophilic end is ionic. C) The hydrophobic end has the hydrocarbon chain. D) Soaps form micelles in solution. The hydrophilic end has the hydrocarbon chain
The major advantage of LAS detergents over ABS detergents is that they A) are effective in hard water. B) are soil based. C) are biodegradable. D) lack phosphates. are biodegradable
Substances added to surfactants to increase their detergency are A) brighteners. B) builders. C) emulsifiers. D) enzymes. builders
Sequestration is A) precipitating magnesium and calcium ions. B) when sodium and lithium ions are tied up in soluble complexes. C) when calcium and magnesium ions are tied up in soluble complexes. D) a nonionic surfactant. when calcium and magnesium ions are tied up in soluble complexes
Which of the following forms a strongly caustic solution when mixed with water? A) automatic dishwashing detergent B) liquid dishwashing detergent C) liquid clothing detergent D) bath soap automatic dishwashing detergent
Which of the following is NOT a component of detergents for washing dishes by hand? A) enzymes B) fragrances C) strong alkalis D) surfactants strong alkalis
Quaternary salts with two long carbon chains and two smaller chains on the nitrogen are used as A) bleaches. B) analgesics. C) fabric softeners. D) weed killers. fabric softeners
Which of the following statements is NOT true for fabric softeners? A) They are anionic surfactants. B) They are quaternary salts. C) They form a film which lubricates the fibers in the fabric. D) They have two long hydrocarbon chains They are anionic surfactants
Why are perborate bleaches better for white, resin-treated, polyester-cotton fabrics than chlorine bleaches? The fabric lasts longer
Bleaches are A) oxidizing agents. B) reducing agents. C) brighteners. D) detergents. oxidizing agents
Fabric softeners are A) potassium salts of long chain fatty acids. B) oxidizing agents. C) quaternary salts with two long carbon chains and two smaller chains on the nitrogen. D) nonionic surfactants. quaternary salts with two long carbon chains and two smaller chains on the nitrogen
Baking soda can be used as A) an automatic dishwashing detergent. B) a germicide. C) a substance to absorb odor. D) an acid. a substance to absorb odor
A cleaning product that may contain either ammonia or vinegar in a dilute solution of isopropyl (rubbing) alcohol would be used as a(n) A) toilet bowl cleaner. B) oven cleaner. C) glass cleaner. D) drain cleaner glass cleaner
A molecule that contains only C, H and O atoms will degrade most quickly if its structure A) is a straight chain. B) contains many branches. C) contains rings. D) also has halogen atoms. is a straight chain
Which of the following is no longer used as a component of paint? A) polymers B) 2PbCO3 ∙ Pb(OH)2 C) tung oil D) ester 2PbCO3 ∙ Pb(OH)2
A wax is a(n) ester made from a long-chain fatty acid and a long-chain alcohol
Which generally does NOT need to be proven safe and effective before marketing? A) cosmetic B) drug C) food additive D) a cooking oil cosmetic
A cosmetic that is a suspension of oil in water is called a A) wax. B) lotion. C) lanolin. D) cream lotion
Emollients are A) artificial skin. B) skin plasticizers. C) skin coatings. D) skin catalysts. skin coatings
Sunscreens contain chemicals that A) absorb both UV-A and UV-B rays. B) absorb neither UV-A nor UV-B rays. C) inhibit melanin production in the skin. D) promote melanin production in skin absorb both UV-A and UV-B rays
Deodorants act by A) breaking down odorous chemicals as they are produced. B) destroying odor-causing bacteria. C) producing enzymes. D) reacting with sweat glands to stop perspiration destroying odor-causing bacteria
The active ingredient in almost all antiperspirants is A) aluminum chlorohydrate. B) ethanol. C) ethylene oxide. D) aluminum oxide. aluminum chlorohydrate
Astringents are used primarily in A) perfumes. B) lipsticks. C) antiperspirants. D) hair spray. antiperspirants
Detergents and abrasives are the major active ingredients in A) colognes. B) shampoos. C) skin creams. D) toothpastes. toothpastes
The principal material of tooth enamel is A) fluoride. B) collagen. C) hydroxyapatite. D) protein. hydroxyapatite
The fraction of compounds in a perfume that have the highest volatility would be called the A) end note. B) middle note. C) base note. D) top note top note
Most aftershaves contain about 50 - 70% A) methanol. B) 2-propanol. C) ethanol. D) acetone. ethanol
Perfumes are A) pure substances. B) compounds. C) simple mixtures of compounds. D) complex mixtures of compounds. complex mixtures of compounds
What substance is added to aftershave lotions to provide a cooling effect? A) diethyl ether B) menthol C) 2-propanol D) propane menthol
Which of the following cosmetics contain the greatest amount of fragrant compounds? A) perfumes B) colognes C) aftershave lotions D) toothpaste perfumes
Relative to skin protein, hair protein has more A) amino acids. B) disulfide bonds. C) amide bonds. D) cationic bonds. disulfide bonds
The only necessary ingredient in shampoo is A) water. B) conditioner. C) fragrance. D) detergent. detergent
Wet hair is softer because water disrupts A) disulfide bonds. B) hydrogen bonds. C) peptide bonds. D) cationic bonds. hydrogen bonds
If you wish to make a shampoo formulation that helps "fix split ends" you would probably add some A) additional detergent. B) astringent. C) protein. D) pH balance. protein
People with brunette hair have lots of A) melanin. B) phaeomelanin. C) chlorophyll. D) none of these melanin
Hair is most efficiently "permanently" dyed by adding colorless reactants that react in the hair to form the desired color
Hair colorings that gradually develop hair color contain lead compounds that react with hair to form black lead sulfide
The last step in hair curling is to roll the hair on curlers and treat the rolled hair with hydrogen peroxide (neutralizer). This causes new disulfide bonds to form
Created by: vtlove116



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