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Electricity - Static and Current - Definitions

Electron A negatively charged particle that orbits around a nucleus. Electrons in metal elements are free to move.
Copper A metal that is a very good conductor of electricity (and heat)
Positively charged object An object that has fewer electrons than protons (protons are trapped inside the nucleus, electrons are free to move)
Negatively charged object An object that has more electrons than protons(protons are trapped inside the nucleus, electrons are free to move
Static electricity Electrons are transferred from one object to another, but stay stationary on the object after the initial transfer
Current electricity Electrons are moving through a circuit
Circuit A path through which electrons flow. Basic components of a circuit are: battery, copper wire, a load (or resistor) and a switch (*for grade 9 science)
Load Or Resistor A circuit element that resists the flow of electrons A circuit element that uses electrical energy and converts it to another form
Copper Wire Wire made of copper with very little resistance Electrons flow freely inside a copper wire
Switch A circuit element that physically breaks a circuit (switch is OFF) or completes a circuit (switch is ON)
Battery A source of electrical potential energy for electrons Chemical reaction inside the battery Has positive and negative terminal
Series Circuit A circuit where the electrons have only one path through each of the resistors
Parallel Circuit A circuit where the electrons have two (or more )paths - some electrons go through one resistor and some go through the other resistor
Electric Potential The electrical energy available in ONE Coulomb of charge. Symbol is V. Unit is V (*yes, both the symbol and the unit use the same letter!)
Coulomb, C Unit of electrical charge 1 Coulomb = 6.25 x 10^18 electrons
Electric Potential Difference The difference in electric potential before an after a resistor or before and after a battery. Symbol is V. Unit is V (*both symbol and unit use the same letter)
Volt, V Unit of electric potential 1Volt = 1Joule/1 Coulomb. 1V = 1J/1C
Joule, J Unit of energy
Ampere, A Unit of current 1Ampere = 1 Coulomb/1 second 1A = 1C/1s
Current The flow of charge past a point in a circuit per unit second. Symbol is I Unit is A
Charge The number of electrons Symbol is Q Unit is C
Created by: mkoulis