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physics

week 2

QuestionAnswer
excitation of electrons creates what heat
Bremsstrumlung is "breaking" or "slowing down" radiation
Brem is also non ionizing interacting with orbital or a nuclear field
Brem is teh difference intragrading and kenetic energy of a photon
the tighter the angle the more energy released
Brem can produce from 0 - set kVp
Brams 80 -100% kVp
characteristic 15% kVp
the closer the electron gets to the nucleus depends on how much energy is released
Characteristic energy is monoenergetic energy value
Brems energy is polyenergetic energy value
characteristic on the emission spectrum is discrete
Brems on the emission spectrum is continuous
4 factors fo emission target material, filtration, voltage waveform, and kvp/mas
if kVp is increased 2x the amount of xray photons released is increased approx. 4x
sdded filtration on emission spectrum changes positon shifts to the right,and decreases amplitude
kVp on emission spectrum changes amplitude(increases) ,position shifts to rt
mAs on emission spectrum increases amplitude
target material on emission spectrum increases amplitude, increases atomic number and shifts to the right
voltage waveform on the emission spectrum increased gen. efficiency, decreased volt ripple, increase amplitude and shifts to rt
electrons traveling from cathode to anode are referred to as projectile electrons
the projectile electrons interacts with either the orbital or nuclear field of target atoms
most of the heat generated in the anode of x ray tubes is due to constant excitation anf return of outershell electrons
the efficiency of xray production increases with increasing kVp
Most xray interactions at the target in the diagnostic xray range are Bremsstrahlung
Ionizing radiation are grouped as either particulate or electromagnetic
what are teh two principle types fo particulate radiations associated with radioactive decay alpha particles and beta
Alpha particles contains 2 protons/ 2 nuetrons and is = to a helium nucleaus
alpha particles are emitted from the nuclei of heavy material and travel 5cm
beta are identicle to electrons with the exception of the origin
beta are emitted from teh nuclei fo radioactive material
direct and indirect interaction are a result of biological damage of matter
somatic and genetic effects are from exposure to ionizing radiation
somatic is within the individuals whose radiated
genetic is the offspring of a radiated individual
what factors influence the effect of exposure to ionizing radiation -total dose recieved-the rate at which the dose was recieved-the age at exposure-the type of radiation-the sensitivity-what portion of the body to recieve the dose
When was the first fatality of radiation and who 1904, clarence daley
when was the british xray radium protection committee formed 1921
2 sources of ionizing radiation natural origin and man made sources
What does KERMA represent kenetic energy released in matter
integral dose is the total amount of energy imparted to matter
for x and gamma rays approximately 2/3 of the biological effects on tissue are result of indirect actions
NCRP report no. 93 is annual effective dose equivalent & genetically significant dose in US population
NCRP report no. 116 (91) limitations of exposure to ionizing radiations
what are the survey instruments of measuring radiation geiger mueller-scintillation-ioniztion chamber
types of personnel monitoring devices are optically stimulated luminescence (osl)film badgethermoluminescent (tld)pocket dosimeter
a discrete spectrum contains only specific values
continuous spectrum contains all possible values
Created by: Pruettsgirl