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4U Organic Chemistry

prepare for the test!

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oxidation increasing the # of C-O bonds; losing electrons (often carried off by hydrogens)
reduction increasing the # of C-H bonds; gaining electrons (often carried by hydrogens)
addition adding a functional group across a double (or triple) bond, thereby creating a single (or double) bond
polymerization joining subunits into a long chain by either addition or condensation rxns
elimination reforming a double (or triple) bond by removing a functional group
hydrolysis splitting two molecules by inserting water
to condense to join two molecules by removing water
dehydration synthesis joining two molecules by removing water
cis-trans isomer If two functional groups (attached to the carbons of the double bond) are on the same side of the double bond, the isomer is a cis alkene. If the two groups lie on opposite sides of the double bond, the isomer is a trans alkene.
substitution swapping a functional group for a hydrogen; often seen in aromatics
decarboxylation removing a carboxyl functional group
Markovnikov's rule in an addition reaction, look for the carbon at the double bond that is bonded to the most carbons, then give this carbon the functional group (aka. give the hydrogen to the carbon bonded to the most hydrogens!)
esterification When a carboxylic acid is treated with an alcohol and an acid catalyst, an ester is formed (along with water)
tertiary alcohols cannot undergo oxidation since the C-C bond bond energy is 347 kJ/mol compared with 338 kJ/mol in the C--H bond
fat-soluble relates to nonpolar molecules that dissolve in other nonpolar molecules
demonstrate Show proof or evidence for something. Explain or show how something works
Created by: jcepella