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Grade 9 Science

Chemistry Unit Test

What is The Particle Theory of Matter? 1.All matter is made up of tiny particles 2.Different substances are made up of different types of particles 3.Particles are in a constant state of motion 4.The higher the temperature the faster the particles move 5.Particle attract each other
What is Matter? Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Ex:. Water Non example: Sound
What is a Pure Substance? Pure substances are composed of only one type of particle.
What are the 2 types of pure substances? Elements and Compounds
What is an Element Elements are composed of only one type of atom. Elements can not be broken down. All Elements can be found on the periodic table.
What is a Compound? Compounds are composed of two or more different types of atoms bonded together into molecules. Compounds can be separated in a chemical reaction.
What is a Mixture? A mixture is composed of two or more pure substances mixed together. It is composed of different types of particles. A mixture can be separated by physical means
What are the 2 types of Mixtures? Solutions and Mechanical Mixtures.
What is a Solution? Solutions are one visible phase. ex: Gatorade and salt water.
What is a Mechanical Mixture? A Mechanical Mixture is two or more visible phases. ex: Pizza, salt and papper
What are Physical Properties? Physical Properties are the characteristics of a substance that can be observed using our five senses, and without changing the substance into another substance. Ex: Colour, Odour, Texture, Lustre, Clarity, State, Viscosity.
What are Chemical Properties? Chemical Properties are observations that are made when a substance either reacts or does not react with another substance. Ex: acids will dissolve metals.
What is a Physical Change? A Physical Change is a change which does not alter the composition of the starting substance or substances, and does not produce any new substances.
Evidence that a Physical Change has occurred. 1.There is a change in size or shape. 2.A solid dissolving in a liquid to create a solution. 3.There is a change of state. 4.The change is reversible
What is a Chemical Change? A Chemical Change is a change that alters the composition of the starting substance or substances, and produces one or more new substances in the process.
Evidence that a Chemical Change has occurred. 1.There is a change in colour 2.There is a change in odour 3.Bubbles form (not as a result of the substance being heated) 4.A new solid (precipitate) forms in a liquid 5.There is a change in temperature or light *2 clues to indicate a chemical change
What is a Molecule? A Molecule is a group of Atoms that are chemically joined together.
What is a Molecular Element? A Molecular Element is a molecule made up of the same type of Atoms.
Characteristics of Metals. Colour: silver/grey Lusture: Shiny Malleable: Yes Able to Conduct Electricity: Yes Magnetic: No
Characteristics of Non-Metals. Colour: Wide range (commonly not silver or grey) Lusture: Dull Malleable: No Able to conduct electricity: No Magnetic: No
How Democritus contributed to Atomic Theory. Around 400 BCE, Democritus proposed that all matter can be divided smaller and smaller until a single indivisible particle (the Atom) is reached. He also proposed that Atoms are of different sizes, in constant motion, and separated by empty spaces.
How Aristotle contributed to Atomic Theory. Around 450 BCE, Aristotle supported an earlier idea that all matter is made up of 4 substances: earth, water, air, and fire. These substances were thought to have 4 specific qualities: dry, wet, cold, and hot.
How Dalton contributed to Atomic Theory. 1807: -All matter is made up of tiny, invisible particles called Atoms -All Atoms of an element are identical -Atoms of different elements are different -Atoms are rearranged to form new substances in chemical reactions but are never created/destroyed
How J.J. Thompson contributed to Atomic Theory. 1897 Thompson's Idea: Extremely small negatively charged particles could be emitted by very hot materials. Theory: Atoms have negative electrons, the rest of the atom is a positively charged sphere. Negative electrons are evenly distributed in an atom
How Rutherford contributed to Atomic Theory. 1909 The Gold Foil Experiment Predicted positively charged particles shot at a thin piece of gold foil would pass thru the foil, and some would be slowed down/deflected at very small angles.
Rutherford Atomic Theory continued When the experiment was performed some particles were deflected at very large angles, as though they had collided with a small, concentrated, positively charged central mass inside the atom.
Rutherford Atomic Theory part 3 The centre of the atom is called the nucleus, has a positive charge, contains most of the atoms mass, and occupies a small space. The nucleus is surrounded my negatively charged electrons, and most of the atom is empty space.
How Bohr contributed to Atomic Theory. 1913 Bohr discovers: Electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom. Each electron in the orbit has a certain amount of energy. The further from the nucleus the greater the energy. Electrons can't be between orbits, but can jump to & from orbits.
Bohr Atomic Theory continued. They release energy as light when they jump from higher to lower orbits. Each orbit holds a certain number of electrons. First hold 2, second holds 8, and third holds 8.
How Chadwick contributed to Atomic Theory. Discovered Planetary Model in 1932 Found a particle that could penetrate & disintegrate atom w/ strong power. Atom is an empty sphere w/ a tiny dense nucleus Nucleus contains positively charged protons & neutral particles called neutrons
Chadwick Atomic Theory continued. Negatively charged electrons circle rapidly through the empty space around the nucleus. A neutral atom will have the same number of protons as electrons.
Created by: cianieri