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Chemistry:Chapters 1-9

What are atoms that have the dame number of protons but different numbers of neutrons? isotopes
The number of which type of particle identifies an atom as a given element? proton
Which subatomic particles is not found in the nucleus of an atom? electron
What type of chemist would most likely study alcohols, which consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen? organic chemist
What is not an evidence that a chemical change has occurred? freezing of a liquid
What is a group of two or more atoms linked together by chemical bonds? molecule
What is the relative charge of an electron? -1
Who developed the atomic theory of matter? John Dalton
What is a homogeneous part of a system that is in contact with but physically distinct from other parts of the system? phase
What term refers to the ratio of an object's mass to its volume? density
What are the smallest particles into which an element may be broken down without changing the identity of the element? atoms
Which of the following does 1 millimeter of mercury (1 mmHg) equal? 1 torr
What is the number of protons in an atom? atomic number
Which of the following does the standard atmosphere ( atm ) equal? 760 torr
What isotope is the atomic mass unit defined relative to? carbon-12
Which step in the scientific method involves thinking about nature to develop an idea about how something works? hypothesizing
What is a microsecond? 10-6 s
What is standard temperature and pressure (STP) ? 273.15 K and 760 torr
How many atoms are in exactly one mole of atoms? 6.022 x 10-23
Which of the following temperatures equals 0 K? -273.15 C
how closely a measured value matches the actual value? accuracy
What term refers to the randomness of a substance or system? entropy
What is the internal energy of a system plus the product of its pressure and volume? enthalpy
How is the term energy commonly defined? the ability to do work
What device is used to measure heat flow during physical processes or chemical reactions? calorimeter
What individual "packets" or quanta of light energy called? photons
What can the amplitude of a wave be considered a measure of ? strength
If the wavelength of a light wave decreases, how must its frequency change? remain the same
What does light consist of? electromagnetic waves and photons
Who developed the periodic table of the elements? Dmitri Mendeleev
What is the maximum number of valence electrons an atom may have? 8
What unit is wave frequency usually measured in? hertz
Which categories consists of elements that usually exist as 2+ ions? alkaline earth metals
What does the magnetic quantum number describe? orbital orientation
What does the principal quantum number describe? electron shell
What is the lowest energy state of an atom called? ground state
Attractive force between atoms that is strong enough to enable the group to act as a unit. chemical bond
Chemical bond in which positively charged ions are electrically attracted to negatively charged ions? ionic bond
Chemical bond that results from the sharing of valence electrons between atoms? covalent bond
When two atoms share a single pair of electrons? single covalent bond
Sharing two pairs of electrons forms? double bond
Sharing three pairs of electrons forms? triple bond
Chemical bonds that bind atoms together in a metal? metallic bonds
Covalent bond in which both atoms share electrons equally? nonpolar bond
Covalent bond in which electrons are shared unequally between atoms? polar bond
A bond or molecule that has a negative end and positive end forms? dipole
Electrons that circulate freely through the molecule instead of being bound to a single atom or pair of atoms? delocalized electrons
Four bonding pairs around the carbon atom? tetrahedral
Properties of a substance results from forces between molecules? intermolecular forces
A few solids have no ordered arrangement or pattern for the particles that compose them? amorphous solids
Characterized by particles arranged in a regular and repeated three dimensional pattern. crystalline solid
The simplest repeating unit in a crystal? unit cell
One of the most efficient crystal structures? hexagonal close packing
Created by: LTC



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