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Electrolytes10/09

QuestionAnswer
Subject to circadian rhythms Phosphate
No tourniquet or hand exercise used Lactate
Put specimen on ice Lactate
Indicator of severe O2 deprivation Lactate
Two Types of this: Hypoxic conditions,(shock, MI, pulmonary edema) and Metabolic origins (Diabetes mellitus, infection, leukemia, liver or renal disease) Lactic Acidosis
DNA and RNA makeup Phosphate
Is a component of most enzymes Phosphate
Comes from diet, released from cells into blood, and lost from bone Phosphate
Is regulated through renal excretion and reabsorption Phosphate
Affected by PTH, Vitamin D, and Growth Hormone Phosphate
Colorometric Analysis using Ammonium Phosphomolybdate Complex or Molybdenum Blue Phosphate
Major intracellular anion in hydroxyapatite crystals Phosphate
Major extracellular cation that determines the solubility of plasma Sodium
Uses the ATPase pump Sodium and Potassium
Concentration is regulated by water intake, excretion, and blood volume Sodium
Hyponatremia is defined as less than 135 mmol/L
Hyponatremia is caused by Sodium loss, Decreased aldosterone, Decreased Potassium, inc water retention, water imbalance
Hypernatremia is caused by Water loss, diabetes insipidus, ADH secretion impaired, too much aldosterone,renal tubular disorder
ISE is most used, but there is buildup of protein on electrode membranes Sodium
Major component of buffering system in the blood bicarbonate
Chloride Shift exchanges: Bicarbonate with Chloride
How much bicarbonate is reabsorbed kidneys? 85%
By what form is Bicarbonate absorbed in tubules and into extracellular fluid? CO2
Response to alkadosis Kidneys excrete bicarbonate in urine and retain Na+
Response to acidosis Kidneys excrete H+ in the urine and totally reabsorb HCO3
Response to metabolic acidosis Hyperventilation
Response to metabolic alkalosis Hypoventilation
PCO2 electrode measures Total CO2
Enzymatic reaction for HCO3 Phosphenolpyruvate Carboxylase and Malate Dehydrogenase, measure NADH
Sample MUST STAY CAPPED until analysis Bicarbonate
Major extracellular Anion Chloride
Functions are: Maintains osmotic pressure, proper body hydration, ionic neutrality, and blood volume Chloride
Regulated by Diet and Absorption in GI tract, Passive absorption in proximal tubules, Electrical Neutrality Chloride
State of excessive loss of bicarbonate ions, and is accompanied by hypernatremnia: Hyperchloremia
Sweat determines presence of Cystic Fibrosis Chloride
Amperometric-Coulometric titration Ag+ binds to Cl- for qunatification
Colormetric anaylsis for Chloride displacement of thiocyanate from mercuric thiocyanate, and reaction with ferric ion to form color
ISE is most used Chloride
Major intracellular cation Potassium
Concentration within cell is 20X concentration outside of cell Potassium
Functions are neromuscular excitability, contractions of the heart, intracellular fluid volume, and hydrogen ion concentration Potassium
Aldosterone regulates the secretion of this in exchange for Na+ into the urine in distal tubule and collecting duct Potassium
Distal nephron is the principle determinant of urinary excretion Potassium
Concentration is regulated by ATPase pump Potassium and Sodium
Catecholamines and insulin does what to ATPase pump? Increases activity to promote cellular entry of K+
Propanol (beta blocker) does what to ATPase pump? Impairs cellular entry of K+
Causes release of H+ and intake of Na+ and K+ Alkalemia
Hypoxia, overdose of digoxin, or hypomagnesemia does what to ATPase pump? Inhibition of pump
Hypokalemia is defined as: less than 3mmol/L
ISE uses valinomycin membrane Potassium
Hemolysis should most definitely be avoided! Potassium!, as well as Magnesium
Decreased renal excretion, Cellular Shifts, acidosis, leukemia, exercise causes too much of what? Potassium
This is Essential for life functions Magnesium
Essential cofactor for more than 300 enzymes Magnesium
Involved in DNA transcription, Oxidative Phosphorylation, and Transmembrane transport Magnesium
55-60% in free form, 25-30% bound to albumin, and 15% complexed to anions Magnesium
50% found in bone, 35-45% intracellular, and 1-2% extracellular Magnesium
Fourth most abundant Cation and Second most abundant Intracellular Ion Magnesium
Renal Threshold for Magnesium is 0.60-0.85 mmol/L
Regulation is controlled by Kidney and Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) Magnesium
Increased antacids, acute or chronic renal failure, bone carcinoma or dehydration causes: Hypermagnesemia
Colorometric methods include Calamagite, Formazen dye, Methythymol blue Magnesium
Urine must be acidified first magnesium
A divalent Cation; average human body contains 1 KG Calcium
40-45% bound to proteins, 10% complexed to anions; 45-50% free Calcium
Calcium is controlled by these 3 hormones PTH, Vitamin D, Calcitonin
In bone, causes activation of osteoclasts to break down; in kidneys, causes increased Calcium absorption in tubules, and causes renal stimulation of Vitamin D PTH
Works with PTH to increase Calcium absorption in intestine, and stimulates bone reabsorption Vitamin D
Secreted when there are high levels of Calcium to inhibit the action of both PTH and Vit.D Calcitonin from the thyroid gland
This condition results from Primary hypoparathyroidism, hypomagnesemia, and hypermagnesemia, Acute Pancreatitis, Hypoalbuiminemia, and Vitamin D deficiencies Hypocalcemia
This condition results from hyperparathyroidism, malignancies, endocrine disorder, prolonged immobilzation, Vit. D Toxicity Hypercalcemia
Cannot use Lithium Heparin tube because it will bind to this Calcium
Functions are neuromuscular transmission (CNS), cardiac function and cofactor in blood coagulation Calcium
Analysis uses lactate oxidase and Hydrogen Peroxide Lactate
Created by: rschneider