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Earth Science Unit 1

Vocab from unit 1

QuestionAnswer
Ages Smaller divisions of an epoch in geologic time
Amber Fossilized tree sap that may contain the actual remains of ancient life
Astronomy Study of our solar system and the objects in it
Casts Type of fossil in which material is deposited in a space created by a dead animal or plant
Cenozoic Most recent era on Earth in the geologic time scale
Cross-Cutting Relationship The principle that an intrusion or fault is younger than the rock it cuts across
Ecology Study of the interactions between the living things on Earth and their nonliving resources in their environments
Environmental Science Study of the effects people have on their environments and Earth's resources
Eons The largest division of time on the geological scale; includes Phanerozoic, Proterozoic, and Achaean
Epochs Divisions within geologic periods; the smallest units of geologic time
Eras Divisions within the various eons and often tied to mass extinctions or major events; divided into periods, such as Paleozoic, Mesozoic, or Cenozoic
Extinct A term that typically describes a species that no longer has any known living individuals.
Fossils Preserved remains of plants and animals
Freezing Preservation of ancient animals and plants in areas were temperatures were below freezing for extended periods of time
Geologic time scale Used to explain the history of the Earth based on rock and fossil evidence
Geology Study of solid earth including rocks, minerals, and Earth's resources
Glaciology The scientific study of the nature, formation, and movement of glaciers
Holocene Most recent epoch on Earth in the geologic time scale
Hydrology Study of underground water found between soil and rock particles
Igneous Type of rock formed when lava or magma cools and hardens
Impression Type of fossil in which imprints are preserved, such as footprints in a river bed
Index fossils Distinctive fossils used to establish and compare the relative ages of rock layers and the fossils they contain
Key beds A n easily identified strata (layer) that is distinctive enough to be useful in correlation in matching rock from different areas/regions
Lateral Continuity Principle that states that an original sedimentary layer extends laterally until it tapers or thins at its edges.
Limnology Study of rivers and lakes
Marine biology Study of living things in the ocean
Meteorology Study of Earth's atmosphere and weather
Mineralogy Study of minerals and their properties
Molds An open area left behind after a plant or animal remains are gone that is filled in with deposits to form cast fossils
Oceanography Study of the oceans
Original Horizontality Principle stating that sedimentary rocks are deposited in horizontal or nearly horizontal layers.
Paleontology Study of fossils and how ancient organisms lived
Periods Divisions in a specific era, such as Quaternary, Jurassic, and Cambrian
Petrification The process by which organic material is turned into stone or fossils; cells are replaced with minerals
Phanerozoic Most recent eon on Earth in the geologic time scale
Quaternary Most recent period on Earth in the geologic time scale
Relative age The age of a specific rock in comparison with other rocks; i.e. older or younger than surrounding rock
Rocks Provides clues about Earth's past; classified as igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic
Sedimentary Type of rock in which most rocks form
Seismology Study of earthquakes
Selenology Study of the moon and its geology
Stratigraphy The study of rock layers and the sequence of events they reflect
Superposition A principle that states that younger rocks lie above older rocks if the layers have not been disturbed
Tar Pit Area composed of a petroleum
Trilobite A marine arthropod, now extinct, that lived during the Paleozoic era
Unconformity Refers to a gap in the sequence of rock
Uniformitarianism A principle that geologic processes that occurred in the past can be explained by current geologic processes
Volcanology Study of volcanoes
Created by: ttomm