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lesson 8

QuestionAnswer
atom The smallest particle of an element, made of electrons, protons, and neutrons.
nucleus The tiny, very dense, positively-charged region in the center of an atom; made up of protons and neutrons.
electron cloud The area surrounding the nucleus of an atom where the electrons are found.
electrical charge A property of matter; electrons are negatively charged; protons are positively charged; the numbers of protons and electrons in a material determine the charge of the material.
Proton, p+ A positively-charged subatomic particle of the nucleus of an atom that contributes to the mass of the atom.
Neutron, n0 A subatomic particle of the nucleus of an atom that is without charge that contributes to the mass of an atom.
electron A negatively-charged subatomic particle that orbits the atomic nucleus.
subatomic particles Particles that are smaller than the atom.
Element A pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical means.
atomic number The number of protons in the nucleus of a single atom.
chemical symbol A one or two letter notation used to represent an atom of a particular element.
atomic mass The mass of an atom, approximately equal to the number of protons and neutrons in the atom.
groups The columns on a Periodic Table that arrange the elements by the number of electrons that are in the outermost shell.
periods The rows in a Periodic Table that classify the elements by the number of electron shells.
metal Most elements are metals. They are typically solid, shiny, malleable, and good conductors of heat and electricity.
non-metal Elements typically not shiny, usually a gas or brittle solid, not malleable, and poor conductors of heat and electricity.
metalloids Elements that have properties of both metals and non-metals; sometimes referred to as semiconductors.
noble gases Unreactive non-metals in Group 18 of the Periodic Table.
electron shell A specific area where electrons of the same energy level are found.
valance electrons The electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom that influence how an element will react with other substances.
energy level A state in which matter can exist with a quantifiable amount of energy and distinct from other states with different amounts of energy.
reactivity at which a chemical substance tends to undergo a chemical reaction; significantly influenced by valence electrons of the reacting substances.
outermost electron cloud The area surrounding the nucleus of an atom where the electrons are found.
Net Charge The sum of negative and positive charges.
ions Form as a result of the loss or gain of electrons and are identified by the overall net charge.
chemical reaction The process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
precipitate A solid that is deposited from a solution
endothermic A process that absorbs heat
exothermic A process that releases heat
chemical formula A shorthand notation that uses chemical symbols and numbers as subscripts to represent the type and number of atoms that are present in the smallest unit of the substance.
reactants A substance that takes part in and undergoes change during a reaction
products Substances produced during chemical reactions
coefficient A number placed in front of a chemical symbol or formula in order to balance the equation
subscript A number written below and to the right of an atomic symbol in a chemical formula that shows the number of a specific type of atom present
chemical formula A shorthand notation that uses chemical symbols and numbers as subscripts to represent the type and number of atoms that are present in the smallest unit of the substance
balanced equation A symbolic representation of a chemical reaction in which both sides of the equation contain equivalent numbers of atoms of each element. The mass and charge must be balanced on both sides of the reaction.
Created by: doerre2020
 

 



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