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atomic Theory

Models of the atom

Split the nucleus to discover it contains particles with no charge that have a mass approximately equal to that of protons Chadwick
Reacted gases to find that all matter is made of atoms that react in whole number ratios, which led to form the billard ball model. Dalton
Frond that electron can have diffraction and interferance like light and other electromagnetic waves. deBroglie
Performed the gold foil experiment to find that atoms are mostly empty space, but have a positively charge and much mass concentrated in the nucleus, Rutherford
Performed the oil drop experiment which allowed him to calculate the small mass of electrons. Millikan
Observed the spectrakl lines of hydrogen which led him to conclude that electrons are arranged in energy levels sround the nucleus and can not be between levels. Bohr
discovered that two electrons can occupy the same electron cloud if they have spins in opposit directions. Pauli exclusion principle
Performed experiments with cathode ray tube to find that atoms contain particles with a negative charge which can leave the atom JJ Thomson
Mathemathically calculated all known electron orbital properties Schrodinger
An electron occupies the lowest energy level that can recieve it Aufbau Principle
Orbitals of equal energy are occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin. Hunds Rule
It is impossible to know both the position and velocity of an electron simultaneously Heisenberg uncertainty principle
indicates the main energy level occupied by an electron. Principal quantum number
Known as sublevels, orbitals of different shapes, (s,p,d,f) Angular Momentum quantum number
Indicates the orientation of an orbital around the nucleus. Magnetic quantum number
Indicates the two possible spin states of an electron in an orbital Spin quantum number