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Basic Chemistry

Define matter Anything that occupies space and has mass.
What are the three states that matter may exist in and what they are? 1. Solid: definite shape and volume. 2. Liquid: definite volume; shape of container. 3. Gaseous: neither a definite shape nor volume.
What are the 2 ways that matter may be changed and what does each one do? 1. Physically: changes do not alter the basic nature of a substance. *Examples include changes in the state of matter (solid, liquid, or gas) 2. Chemically: changes alter the chemical composition of a substance.
Define energy The ability to do work Has no mass and does not take up space.
What are the 2 kinds of energy and their definition? 1. Kinetic energy: energy is doing work. 2. Potential energy: energy is inactive or stored.
What are the 4 forms of energy and their definition? 1. Chemical energy: is stored in chemical bonds of substances. 2. Electrical energy: results from movement of charged particles.
(CONT.) What are the 4 forms of energy and their definition? 3. Mechanical energy: is energy directly involved in moving matter. 4. Radiant energy: travels in waves; energy of the electromagnetic spectrum.
How does energy form conversions? ATP (adenosine triphosphate) traps the chemical energy of food in its bonds.
Define elements Fundamental units of matter. *96% of the body is made from 4 elements.
What are the 4 elements that the body is made from? 1. Oxygen (O): most common; 65% of the body's mass. 2. Carbon (C) 3. Hydrogen (H) 4. Nitrogen (N)
Define Atoms 1. Building blocks of elements. 2. Atoms of elements differ from one another. 3. Atomic symbol is chemical shorthand for each element.
What are the 3 basic atomic subparticles? 1. Protons (p+): are positively charged. 2. Neutrons (n0): are uncharged or neutral. 3. Electrons (e-) : are negatively charged.
All atoms are Electrically neutral
Number of protons equals numbers of electrons in an atom.
Positive and negative charges cancel each other out.
Ions are atoms that have lost or gained electrons.
What are the 2 models of an Atom? 1. Planetary model 2. Orbital model
Define Planetary model 1. Portrays the atom as a miniature solar system. 2. Protons and neutrons are in the atomic nucleus. 3. Electrons are in orbitals around the nucleus. 4. Although outdated, this model is simple and easy to understand and use.
Define Orbital model 1. Electrons are depicted by an electron cloud, a haze of negative charge, outside the nucleus.
Both Planetary and Orbital model of an Atom Has electrons that determine an atom's chemical behavior and bonding properties.
To identify an element, you need to know? 1. Atomic number 2. Atomic mass number 3. Atomic weight
Define atomic number Equal to the number of protons that the atom contains. *Unique to atoms of a particular element. *Indirectly tells the number of electrons in an atom.
Define atomic mass number Sum of the protons and neutrons contained in an atom's nucleus.
Define atomic weight Approximately equal to the mass number of the element's most abundant isotope.
Define isotopes 1. Atoms that have the same number of protons and electrons but vary in the number of neutrons. 2. Isotopes have the same atomic number but different atomic masses.
Define radioisotopes 1. Heavy isotope of certain atoms. 2. Tends to be unstable. 3. Decomposes to more stable isotope.
Define radioactivity Process of spontaneous atomic decay *Used to tag and trace biological molecules through the body.
Define molecule Two or more atoms of the same elements combined chemically Example: H (atom) + H (atom) --> H2 (molecule) *The reactants are the atoms on the left. *The product is the molecule on the right, represented by a molecular formula.
Define compound Two or more atoms of different elements combined chemically to form a molecule of a compound. Example: 4H + C --> CH4 (methane)
Chemical reactions occur when atoms combine with or dissociate from other atoms.
Chemical bonds are energy relationships involving interactions among the electrons of reacting atoms.
Electrons occupy energy levels called electrons shells (or energy levels)
Electrons closest to the nucleus are most strongly attracted to its positive charge
Distant electrons further from the nucleus are likely to interact with other atoms.
Each electron shells has distinct properties
Shell 1 can hold a maximum of 2 electrons
Shell 2 can hold a maximum of 8 electrons
Shell 3 can hold a maximum of 18 electrons
Subsequent shells can hold more electrons
Bonding involves interactions only between electrons in the outermost (valence) shell.
What is the outermost shell called? Valance
Atoms with full valence shells do not form bonds
What is the rule of eights? 1. The key to chemical reactivity. 2. Atoms are considered stable when their outermost (valence) shell has 8 electrons. 3. Atoms with 8 electrons in the valance shell are considered stable and chemically inactive (inert).
Define reactive elements 1. Atoms will gain, lose, or share electrons to complete their outermost orbitals when fewer than 8 electrons are in the valence shell. 2. Chemical bonding helps atoms achieve a stable valence shell.
What are the 3 types of chemical bonds? 1. Ionic bonds 2. Colvalent bonds 3. Hydrogen bonds
Define Ionic bonds 1. Forms when electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another. 2. Allow atoms to achieve stability through the transfer of electrons.
Define Ions 1. Result from the loss or gain of electrons *Anions have negative charge due to gain of electron(s) *Cations have positive charge due to loss of electron(s) 2. Tend to stay close together because opposite charges attract.
Define covalent bonds 1. Atoms become stable through shared electrons. 2. Electrons are shared in pairs. 3. Single covalent bonds share one pair of electrons 3. Double covalent bonds share two pairs of electrons.
Covalent bonds can be described as either 1. Nonpolar covalent bonds OR 2. Polar covalent bonds
Define nonpolar covalent bonds 1. Electrons are shared equally between the atoms of the molecule. 2. Electrically neutral as a molecule. Example: carbon dioxide
Define polar covalent bonds 1. Electrons are NOT shared equally between the atoms of the molecule. 2. Molecule has a positive and negative side, or pole. Example: Water
Define Hydrogen bonds 1. Extremely weak chemical bonds 2. Formed when a hydrogen atom is attracted to the negative portion, such as an oxygen or nitrogen atom, or a polar molecule.
(CONT.) Define Hydrogen bonds 3. Responsible for the surface tension of water. 4. Important for forming intramolecular bonds, as in protein structure
What are the 3 patterns of chemical reactions? 1. Synthesis reaction 2. Decomposition reaction 3. Exchange reaction
Define synthesis reaction A + B --> AB 1. Atoms or molecules combine to form a larger, more complex molecule. 2. Energy is absorbed for bond formation. 3. Underlies all anabolic (building) activities in the body.
Define decomposition reaction AB --> A + B 1. Molecule is broken down into smaller molecules. 2. Chemical energy is released. 3. Underlies all catabolic (destructive) activities in the body.
Define exchange reaction AB + C --> AC + B AB + CD --> AD + CB 1. Involves simultaneous synthesis and decomposition reactions as bonds are both made and broken. 2. Switch is made between molecule parts, and different molecules are made.
Most chemical reactions are reversible
Reversibility is indicated by a double arrow. *When arrows differ in length, the longer arrow indicates the more rapid reaction or major direction of progress.
What are the 2 chemical compounds? 1. Inorganic compounds 2. Organic compounds
What do inorganic compounds do? 1. Lack carbon 2. Tend to be small, simple molecules 3. Include water, salts, and many (not all) acids and bases
What do organic compounds do? 1. Contain carbon 2. All are large, covalent molecules 3. Include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
What are the 10 things found in the inorganic compounds? 1. Water 2. High heat capacity 3. Polarity/solvent properties 4. Chemical reactions 5. Cushioning 6. Salts 7. Acids 8. Bases 9. Neutralization reaction 10. pH
Define water in inorganic compound 1. Most abundant inorganic compound in the body. 2. Accounts for two-thirds of the body's weight. 3. Vital properties include: *High heat capacity *Polarity/solvent properties *Chemical reactivity *Cushioning
What are the 4 vital properties ? 1. High heat capacity 2. Polarity/solvent properties 3. Chemical reactivity 4. Cushioning
Define high heat capacity 1. Water absorbs and releases a large amount of heat before it changes temperature. 2. Prevents sudden changes in body temperature.
Define polarity/solvent properties 1. Water is often called the "universal solvent" 2. Solvents are liquids or gases that dissolve smaller amounts of solutes. 3. Solutes are solids, liquids, or gasses that are dissolved or suspended by solvents.
(CONT.) Define polarity/solvent properties 4. Solution forms when solutes are very tiny. 5. Colloid forms when solutes of intermediate size form a translucent mixture.
Define chemical reactivity 1. Water is an important reactant in some chemical reactions. 2. Reactions that require water are known as hydrolysis reactions. Example: Water helps digest food or break down biological molecules.
Define cushioning 1. Water serves a protective function. Examples: Cerebrospinal fluid protects the brain from physical trauma, and amniotic fluid protects a developing fetus.
Define salts 1. Ionic compound 2. Contain cations other than H+ and anions other than OH- 3. Easily dissociate (break apart) into ions in the presence of water. 4. Vital to many body functions Example: sodium and potassium ions are essential for nerve impulses.
(CONT.) Define salts 5. All salts are electrolytes. 6. Electrolytes are ions that conduct electrical currents.
Define acids 1. Electrolytes that dissociate (ionize) in water and release hydrogen ions (H+). 2. Proton (H+) donors. 3. Strong acids ionize completely and liberate all their protons. 4. Weak acids ionize incompletely. Example: HCI ---> H+ + CI-
Define bases 1. Electrolytes that dissociate (ionize) in water and release hydroxyl ions (OH-). 2. Proton (H+) acceptors. Example: NaOH ---> Na+ + OH-
Define neutralization reaction 1. Type of exchange reaction in which acids and bases react to form water and a salt. Example: NaOH + HCI ---> H2O + NaCI
Define pH 1. pH measures relative concentration of hydrogen (and hydroxide) ions in body fluids. 2. pH scale is based on the number of protons in a solution.
(CONT.) Define pH 3. pH scale runs from 0 to 14. 4. Each successive change of 1 pH unit represents a tenfold change in H+ concentration.
Define organic compounds 1. Polymer: chainlike molecules made of many similar or repeating units (monomers). 2. Many biological molecules are polymers, such as carbohydrates and proteins.
Define dehydration synthesis monomers are joined to form polymers through the removal of water molecules.
What does dehydration synthesis do? 1. A hydrogen ion is removed from one monomer while a hydroxyl group is removed from the monomer it is to be joined with. 2. Water is removed at the site where monomers join (dehydration).
Define hydrolysis Polymers are broken down into monomers through the addition of water molecules.
What does hydrolysis do? 1. As water molecule is added to each bond, the bond is broke, and the monomers are released.
What does carbonhydrates have and do? 1. Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. 2. Include sugars and starches. 3. Classified according to size and solubility in water.
What are the 3 different saccharides? 1. Monosaccharides 2. Disaccharides 3. Polysaccharides
Define monosaccharides 1. Simple sugars and the structural units of the carbohydrate group. 2. Single-chain or single-ring structures. 3. Contains 3 to 7 carbon atoms Examples: glucose (blood sugar), fructose, galactose, ribose, deoxyribose.
Define disaccharides 1. Two simple sugars joined by dehydration synthesis. 2. Too large to pass through cell membrane. Examples: sucrose, lactose, and maltose
Define polysacchrides 1. Long-branching chains of linked simple sugars. 2. Large, insoluble molecules. 3. Function as storage products Examples: starch and glycogen
Define lipids 1. Most abundant are the trigycerides, phospholipids, and steriods. 2. Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. *Carbon and hydrogen outnumber oxygen. 3. Insoluble in water, but soluble in other lipids.
What are triglycerides or neutral fats? 1. Found in fat deposits 2. Source of stored energy 3. Composed of two types of building blocks--fatty acids and one glycerol molecule. *Saturated fatty acids *unsaturated fatty acids
What are the 2 fatty acid chains of triglycerides? 1. Saturated fats 2. Unsaturated fats
What is saturated fats? 1. Contains only single covalent bonds. 2. Chains are straight. 3. Exist as solids at room temperature since molecules pack closely together.
What is unsaturated fats? 1. Contains one or more double covalent bonds, causing chains to kink. 2. Exist as liquid oils at room temperature. 3. "Heart healthy"
What are trans fats? 1. Oils that have been solidified by the addition of hydrogen atoms at double bond sites. 2. increase risk of heart disease.
What is Omega-3 fatty acids? 1. Found in cold-water fish and plant sources, including flax, pumpkin, and chia seeds; walnuts and soy food. 2. Appear to decrease risk of heart disease.
What are phospholipids? 1. Contain two fatty acids chains rather than three; they are hydrophobic ("water fearing") 2. Phosphorus-containing polar "head" carries an electrical charge and is hydrophilic ("water loving")
(CONT.) What are phospholipids? 3. Charged "head" region interacts with water and ions while the fatty acid chains ("tails:) do not. 4. Form cell membrane
What are steriods? 1. Formed of four interlocking rings. 2. Include cholesterol, bile salts, vitamin D, and some hormones. 3. Some cholesterol is ingested from animal products; the liver also makes cholesterol. 4. Cholesterol is the basis for all steroids made in body.
What are proteins? 1. Account for over half of the body's organic matter. 2. Provide for construction materials for body tissues. 3. Play a vital role in cell function.
(CONT.) What are proteins? 4. Act as enzymes, hormones, and antibodies. 5. Contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur. 6. Built from building blocks called amino acids.
What is amino acid structure? 1. Contain an amine group (NH2) 2. Contain an acid group (COOH) 3. Vary only by R-groups
What is a protein structure? 1. Polypeptides contain fewer than 50 amino acids. 2. Proteins contain more than 50 amino acids. 3. Large, complex proteins contain 50 to thousands of amino acids. 4. Sequence of amino acids produces a variety of proteins.
What are the 4 structural level of protein? 1. Primary structure 2. Secondary structure 3. Tertiary structure 4. Quaternary structure
What is a primary structure in proteins? A strand of amino acid (beads).
What is secondary structure in proteins? Chains of amino acids twist or bend. *Alpha helix-resembles a metal spring *Beta-pleated sheet--resembles pleats of a skirt or sheet of paper.
What is the tertiary structure in proteins? Compact, ball-like (globular) structure.
What is the quaternary structure in proteins? Result of a combination of two or more polypeptide chains.
What are fibrous (structural) proteins? 1. Appear in body structures 2. Exhibit secondary, tertiary, or even quaternary structure. 3. Bind structures together and exist in body tissues. 4. Stable proteins. Examples: collagen and keratin
What are globular (functional) proteins? 1. Function as antibodies, hormones, or enzymes. 2. Exhibit at least tertiary structure. 3. Hydrogen bonds are critical to the maintenance of structure.
(CONT.) What are globular (functional) proteins? 4. Can be denatured and no longer perform physiological roles. 5. Active sites "fit" and interact chemically with other molecules.
What are enzymes? 1. Act as biological catalysts. 2. Increase the rate of chemical reactions 3. Bind to substrates at an active site to catalyze reactions 4. Can be recognized by their -ase suffix *Hydrolase *Oxidase
What are nucleic acids? 1. Form genes 2. Composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus atoms. 3. Largest biological molecules in the body *DNA *RNA 4. Are built from building blocks called nucleotides
What are the 3 parts that nucleotides contain? 1. A nitrogenous base 2. Pentose (five-carbon) sugar 3. A phosphate group
What are the nitrogenous bases in a nucleotide? A=Adenine G=Guanine C=Cytosine T=Thymine U=Uracil
Define deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)? 1. The genetic material found within the cell's nucleus. 2. Provides instructions for every protein in the body. 3. Organized by complementary bases to form a double-stranded helix.
(CONT.) Define deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)? 4. Contains the sugar deoxyribose and the bases adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine. 5. Replicates before cell division.
Define ribonucleic acid (RNA)? 1. Carries out DNA's instructions for protein synthesis 2. Created from a template of DNA 3. Organized by complementary bases to form a single-stranded helix.
(CONT.) Define ribonucleic acid (RNA)? 4. Contains the sugar ribose and the bases adenine, uracil, cytosine, and guanine. 5. Three varieties are messenger, transfer, and ribosomal RNA.
Dine adenosine triphosphate (ATP)? 1. Composed of a nucleotide built from ribose sugar, adenine base, and three phosphate groups/ 2. Chemical energry used by all cells 3. Energy is released by breaking high-energy phosphate bond.
Define ADP? (Adenosine diphosphate) accumulates as ATP is used for energy.
ATP is replenished by oxidation of food fuels.
Created by: alisia02


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