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Grade 9 English

Exam Definitions

Adnomination Repetition of words with the same root. The difference lies in one sound or letter. A nice euphony can be achieved by using this poetic device. Examples: Someone, somewhere, wants something.
Allegory Representation of ideas thru a certain form (character, event). can convey hidden meanings thru symbolic figures, actions, & imagery. E. Animal Farm is about Russian Revolution, characters stand f/working & upper classes, military, & political leaders.
Alliteration The repeated sound of the first consonant in a series of words, or the repetition of the same sounds of the same kind at the beginning of words or in stressed syllables of a phrase. Ex: A lazy lying lion. Peter picked a peck of pickled peppers.
Allusion Reference to a myth, character, literary work, work of art, or an event. Ex: I feel like I’m going down the rabbit hole (an allusion to Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll).
Anaphora Word repetition at the beginnings of sentences in order to give emphasis to them. Ex: “Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania. Let freedom ring......."
Epiphora Word repetition at the end of sentences. Ex: “And that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.” (Abraham Lincoln)
Antithesis Emphasizing contrast between two things or fictional characters. Ex: “Love is an ideal thing, marriage a real thing; a confusion of the real with the ideal never goes unpunished.” (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe)
Apostrophe Directed speech to someone who is not present or to an object. Ex: “Work on, my medicine, work! Thus credulous fools are caught.” (William Shakespeare)
Assonance Repetition of vowels in order to create internal rhyming. Ex: “Hear the mellow wedding bells.” (Edgar Allan Poe)
Consonance Repetition of consonants ex.Pitter Patter, Pitter Patter-repetition of the "t," and "r" sounds.
Cataphora Mentioning of the person or object further in the discourse. Ex: I met him yesterday, your boyfriend who was wearing the cool hat. -If you want some, here’s some cheese. -After he had received his orders, the soldier left the barracks.
Climax Arranging text in such a manner that tension gradually ascends. Ex. He was a not bad listener, a good speaker and an amazing performer.
Anticlimax Tension descends. ex.Tension builds in a horror movie as a young girl approaches a closed door. There is a scratching sound coming from behind the door. When she opens it, a cat comes out
Charactonym (or Speaking Name) Giving fictional characters names that describe them. Ex: Scrooge, Snow White.
Ellipsis Word or phrase omission. Ex: I speak lots of languages, but you only speak two (languages).
Euphemism Replacing offensive or combinations of words with lighter equivalents. Ex: Visually challenged (blind); meet one’s maker (die)
Dysphemism Replacing a neutral word with a harsher word ex:Using "Looney Bin" in place of mental hospital.
Epigram Memorable and brief saying, usually satirical. Ex: “For most of history, Anonymous was a woman.” (Virginia Woolf)
Hyperbole Exaggeration of the statement. Ex: If I’ve told you once, I’ve told you a thousand times.
Litotes Understatement ex:“not too bad” for “very good” is an understatement
Hypophora Asking a question and answering it right away. Ex: Are you going to leave now? I don’t think so.
Verbal Irony (Antiphrasis) – using words to express something different from their literal meaning for ironic effect (”I’m so excited to burn the midnight oil and write my academic paper all week long”).
Situational Irony result differs from the expectation (Bruce Robertson, a character of Filth, is a policeman. Nonetheless, he does drugs, resorts to violence and abuse, and so on).
Dramatic Irony situation is understandable for the audience but not the fictional character/actor (audience sees that the fictional characters/actors will be killed now, though the characters don’t expect it).
Merism Describing people/objects by enumerating their traits. Ex: Lock, stock, and barrel (gun); heart and soul (entirety)
Metalepsis Referencing one thing through the means of another thing, which is related to the first one. Ex: “Stop judging people so strictly—you live in a glass house too.” (A hint at the proverb: people who live in glass houses should not throw stones.)
Metaphor Comparing two different things that have some characteristics in common. Ex:The typical teenage boy’s room is a disaster area
Metonymy Giving a thing another name that is associated with it. Ex: The heir to the crown was Richard. (the crown stands for authority)
Onomatopoeia Imitating sounds in writing. Ex: oink, ticktock, tweet tweet
Oxymoron Combining contradictory traits. Ex: Living dead; terribly good; real magic
Parallelism Arranging a sentence in such a manner that it has parallel structure. Ex: “Tell me and I forget. Teach me and I may remember. Involve me and I will learn.” (Benjamin Franklin)
Chiasmus An inverted parallelism Ex: We shape our buildings, and afterward our buildings shape us
Parenthesis nterrupting a sentence by inserting extra information enclosed in brackets, commas, or dashes. Ex: Our family (my mother, sister, and grandfather) had a barbeque this past weekend.
Personification Attributing human characteristics to nonhumans. Ex: Practically all animals in fairy tales act like human beings. They speak and have traits that are typical of people.
Antanaclasis Pun repetition of the same word or phrase, but with a different meaning (“Cats like Felix like Felix.”—“Felix” catfood slogan).
Malapropism Pun usage of the incorrect word instead of the word with a similar sound (“optical delusion” instead of “optical illusion”).
Paradox Pun self-contradictory fact; however, it can be partially true (“I can resist anything but temptation.”—Oscar Wilde).
Paraprosdokian Pun arranging a sentence in such a manner so the last part is unexpected (You’re never too old to learn something stupid).
Polyptoton Pun repetition of the words with the same root (“The things you own end up owning you.”—Chuck Palahniuk).
Rhetorical question Questioning without expecting the answer. Examples: Why not? Are you kidding me?
Simile Direct comparison. Ex: “Your heart is like an ocean, mysterious and dark.” (Bob Dylan)
Synecdoche Generalization or specification based on a definite part/trait of the object. Ex: He just got new wheels. (car)
Tautology Saying the same thing twice in different ways. Examples: first priority I personally repeat again
Zeugma (or Syllepsis) Applying a word to a few other words in the sentence in order to give different meaning. Ex: She broke his car and his heart.
Implicit In advertising- hidden messages. Not so obvious but inferred. Media uses visuals, settings, body language, colours etc. to communicate. Ex: Cologne ad- guy is with a beautiful girl (because he is wearing cologne)
Explicit In advertising- obvious, clear, specific, and detailed. Leave little room for interpretation. Ex: ad for juice stating that it contains 100% or your recommended daily vitamin C
Created by: cianieri



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