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Chem 400A


What is the most efficient form of energy? In ascending order. Wood, Coal, Gasoline, Natural Gas, Fission, Fusion, Daily Solar Output
How much energy do we get from the sun? 3x10^28 kJ
Energy is equal to Potential plus Kinetic energy. Energy is conserved.
State how you go from potential energy to electrical energy. Potential energy (fuel molecules) through burner to get Kinetic Energy through Turbine to get Mechanical energy through generator to get Electrical Energy. Loss occurs at each step.
Potential Energy is stored in Bonds of molecules
State all types of energy that has increased in consumption Nuclear, Renewables, Natural Gas, Coal, Liquids.
US is ____ of world total of energy consumption 1/3
What is the chemical formula of Coal? C135H96O9NS
Why is coal deemed "dirty"? It contains small amounts of Si, Na, Ca, Al, Ni, Cu etc.
Petroleum is a more ____ source of energy than coal Concentrated. It is 40-60% more energy per gram than coal
Which countries are net importers of petroleum? China, India, Japan
US relationship with crude oil. They were net importers but US Crude production has gone up.
How many barrels/day does the world consume in oil. What is the growth? 97,815 thousands barrels/day with a growth of 20,676 thousand barrels/day.
How do we separate petroleum by weight? Fractional Distillation
What are all of the petroleum fractions? Solids(High MW) (Roofing/Asphalt), Lubricants (>C25)(Grease/Pet jelly), Heavy Gas Oil (C18-25)(Lube oil), Light Gas Oil(C13-17)(Diesel and furnace fuel), Kerosene(C11-12)(Jet Fuel), Gasoline(C6-10)(Gasoline), Petroleum Ether(C5-6)(Gas additives),Gases
What is catalytic cracking and at what fraction does it occur to get to gasoline? High T and P over Zeolite breaks long chains down to shorter ones via radicals and/or alkyl cations. Light Gas Oil and Heavy Gas Oil are cracked to form gasoline.
What is reforming? Rearrangement of carbon backbone into more branched hydrocarbons using Pt or Re on SiO2 as a catalyst.
What is knocking? Caused by multiple ignition points and it depends on the structure of the hydrocarbon fuel. Causes power loss and occurs at straight chain carbons since they have highest chance of self detonation.
What molecule has a compression rating of 100? Isooctane (the standard) and n-heptane is at 0.
As you branch out, compression rating Increases
Tetraethyllead Raises octane ratings
Why does Tetraethyllead work? Pb-C bond is weak and breaks readily providing many ethyl radicals that enhance combustion
What are issues with tetraethyl lead? Pb is highly toxic and organoleads are readily absorbed and fat soluble.
Why was TEL phased out? Clean Air Act. Phased out NOT because of acute toxicity effects of Pb but because TEL killed the catalytic converters introduced to remove NOx and SOx byproducts (that eventually oxidized to HNO3 and H2SO4, forming acid rain)
US mandated use of ethanol blends in gasoline. What are problems? Lower fuel efficiency (since its partially oxidized), Farmers grew lots of corn not food, severe corrosion in fuel lines (not designed for polar), Impact on food, CO2 emissions?
Created by: qwertyqwert


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