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chapters 9-16

stoichometry process of using a balanced chemical equation to determine the relative masses of reactants and products in a reaction
limiting reactant reactant that runs out first
excess reactant reactant that is not fully used up in a reaction
theoretical yield maximum amount of a given product that can be formed when the limiting reactant is fully consumed
actual yield amount of product recovered in a reaction
yield % % of theoretical yield recovered in a chemical reaction
wavelength distance between crests of waves
frequency number of waves passing per unit of time
velocity all electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed in a vacuum
photon wave packet of energy
ground state lowest level for electrons
excited state electrons have absorbed energy
electron orbital region of space around a nucleus of an atom within which there is a 90% probability of finding an electron
electron configuration a way to display the location of all electrons in an element
core electrons electrons in inner energy level
valence electrons electrons in outer sub level
Lewis structure a representation of a molecule or polynomic ion showing how valence electrons are arranged among atoms in the molecule or ion
duet rule H and He both need 2 valence electrons to fill the first level
octet rule most atoms must have 8 valence electrons to be stable
bonding pair a pair of electrons that are shared between two atoms forming a covalent or polar-covalent bond
lone pair electron pairs in a Lewis structure that are not involved in bonding
single bond a bond in which one pair of electrons is shared by two atoms
double pair two pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms
resonance a condition occurring when more than one valid Lewis structure can be written for a particular molecule
molecule structure three dementional arrangement of atoms in a molecule
bent or v-shaped two bonds and two unshared pairs on central atom
linear structure two double bonds on central atom
trigonal planer structure one double bond and two single bonds on central atom or three single bonds with no unshared pairs
trigonal pyramid 3 single bonds and an unshared pair on central atom
tetrahedral 3 single bonds on a central atom
solution homogeneous mixture that does not settle
alloy solid mixed with another solid
liquid solution solid, liquid or gas mixed with a liquid
gaseous solution solid, liquid or gas mixed with a gas
aqueous solution liquid solution in which water is the main component
solvent component with the largest amount
solute component with the smallest amount
ionic separates into ions in solution
polar creates hydrogen bonds with other molecules
non-polar no molecular interaction between molecules
dilute relatively small amount of solute in mixture
concentrated large amount of solute in mixture
unsaturated less than maximum amount of solute
saturated solution maximum amount of solute dissolved
super saturated more than the maximum amount of solute
solubility maximum number of grams of solute per ml of water
standard solution a solution in which the concentration is accurately known
dilution the process of adding more solvent to a solution to lower the concentration of solute
stock solution beginning concentrated solution
neutralization reaction acid-base reaction
acid produces H+ in solution
base produces OH in solution
strong acid dissociates in water
colligative property a property that is dependent only on the number of solute particles in solution
acids proton doner
base proton accepter
acid first recognized as substances that taste sour
base first recognized as substances that taste bitter
conjugate acid substance formed when a proton is added to a base
conjugate base remaining substance when a proton is lost from an acid
oxyacid an acid in which the acidic hydrogen is attached to an oxygen acid
organic acid acid with a carbon backbone
indicators chemicals that change color depending on the pH of a solution
titration a technique in which a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of another solution
standard solution a solution in which the concentration is accurately known
buret a device used for the accurate measurement of the delivery of a given volume of liquid or solution
equivalence point the point in a titration when enough titrate has been added in solution that is being titrated
titration curve a plot of pH of solution verses volume of titrate added to a given solution
buffered solution a solution that resists a change in pH when either an acid or base is added
Created by: aly102201


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