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Chemistry

Exam 1 Chapters 1-3

QuestionAnswer
Electrolysis is the chemical reactions caused by electricity.
Ions are charged atoms (or groups of atoms).
Cathode rays are beams of electrons
Which experimental observation led scientists to speculate that cathode rays contained particles that were constituents of all matter? The rays were independent of the type of gas in the vacuum tube
The existence of positively charged particles in gas discharge tubes was first experimentally verified by Goldstein
When combined with Thomson's determination of the mass to charge ratio of the electron, Millikan's experimental work allowed for the determination of the mass of the electron
An anion is a negatively charged ion
Which person(s) won two Nobel prizes (one in physics; the other in chemistry) for work with radioactivity? Marie Sklodowska Curie
Identify the particle that is the least penetrating alpha
Which type of radioactivity is NOT deflected by a magnetic field? gamma
Which type of radioactivity has a negative charge? beta
Which type of radioactivity is an electron? Beta
The difference in mass between protons and neutrons is generally regarded as insignificant
Which statement comparing chemical and nuclear properties of isotopes is correct? Isotopes generally have the same chemical properties, but often different nuclear properties
The charge on the nucleus of a sodium atom is 11+
The sum of protons and neutrons in an atom is called the nucleon number
How many nucleons are in this isotope of calcium? 46/20 Ca 46
The isotope of carbon commonly referred to as "carbon-14" is 14/6 C
How many neutrons are there in the sulfur-31 isotope? 15
The number of protons in an atom is called the atomic number
How many protons are there in a phosphorus atom? 15
The identity of an element is determined by the ________ in the atom. number of protons
The isotope of hydrogen that contains two nucleons is deuterium
The line spectra of atoms provides experimental evidence for the arrangement of electrons
When an electron in an excited atom "falls down" to a lower energy level, the excited atom emits a characteristic photon
How many electrons are there in a Sb atom? 51
The element with the ground state electron configuration of 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 is Mg
What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the 2s sublevel? 2
Which orbital will have the lowest energy? 4s
Elements at the bottom of Group 7A on the periodic table are much more reactive than elements at the top of the group. False
Which element is a very good conductor of electricity? gold
Iodine has ________ valence electrons. 7
The noble gases are a unique group of elements. They are recognized as unique due to the fact that they are extremely stable and unreactive.
Elements in the same group generally have similar properties
Green chemistry uses materials and processes that are intended to prevent or reduce pollution at its source.
Science is tentative, explanatory, and testable
Scientific results must be verified by further experiment
A brief statement summarizing, BUT NOT EXPLAINING many observations of a physical phenomenon is called a scientific law
Tangible items or pictures used by scientists to represent invisible processes are called models
Kim Chemist proposes that increasing the proportion of butadiene in her glue formulation will make the glue stickier. Her proposal is called a(n) hypothesis
Water has a density of 1.00 g/mL. If you put an object that has a density of 0.79 g/mL into water, it will sink to the bottom. A.) True B.) False False
The SI unit of length is the kilometer. A.) True B.) False Can be true and false because km and m are both used
The substances in a heterogeneous mixture retain their chemical identity, but those in a homogeneous mixture do not. A.) True B.) False False
An example of a physical change is a gas becoming a liquid. A.) True B.) False True
Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes it undergoes. A.) True B.) False True
Which of the following could NOT be the temperature of a solid? A) 2°C B) 2 K C) -2°C D) -2 K -2 K
The boiling point of a liquid is 178°C. What is this temperature on the Kelvin scale? A) 451 K B) 95 K C) 178 K D) -95 K 451K
A student working in the laboratory needs 200.0 g of a liquid chemical whose density is 0.690 g/cm3. What volume of this liquid should he measure? A) 138 cm3 B) 69.0 cm3 C) 200. cm3 D) 290 cm3 290 cm3
What is the density of a liquid that has a volume of 10.0 mL and a mass of 22.00 grams? A) 0.220 g/mL B) 0.460 g/mL C) 2.20 g/mL D) 4.60 g/mL 2.20 g/mL
Which of the following is equal to 1 mL? A) 1 cm3 B) 1000 cm3 C) 1 dm3 D) 0.01 L 1 cm3
The symbol for the prefix micro is ________. A) M B) m C) mm D) μ μ
The prefix giga means ________. A) 1,000 B) 1,000,000,000,000 C) 1,000,000 D) 1,000,000,000 1,000,000,000
How many micrograms are in 20 mg? A) 20,000 μg B) 200,000 μg C) 2,000,000 μg D) 2.0 μg 20,000 μg
How many meters are in 10.0 cm? A) 0.0100 B) 0.100 C) 1.00 D) 1,000 0.100
Melting of ice is a _________ change A) chemical B) physical physical change
What is the chemical symbol for iron? Fe
What is the chemical symbol for phosphorus? P
What is the density of water? 1 g/cm3
What are the units for density for: Solids, Liquids, Gases Solids-g/m3 Liquids- g/mL Gases- Kg/m3
How many cubic centimeters are in 10 mL? 10 cm3
The Greek word atomos means uncuttable
Which of the following statements about atoms is NOT true? atoms are too small to be seen even with a microscope
The "father of modern chemistry" is Lavoisier
32 g of S will react with 48 g of oxygen to produce 80 g of sulfur trioxide. If 16 g of sulfur and 100 g of O are placed into a sealed container and allowed to react, what is the mass of the material in the container after the reaction is completed? 116 g
Which one of the following statements is NOT a correct statement of the Law of Conservation of Mass? the mass of a system is dependent upon chemical reactions that may occur
The amt of Carbon on the earth, including the atmosphere is essentially constant
The Law of Definite Proportions was first stated by Dalton
The observation that 10 g of hydrogen gas always combines with 80 g of oxygen gas to form 90 g of water, even when there is more than 80 g of oxygen present in the reaction container, illustrates the Law of definite Proportions
student measures 10.5 g of Hg(II) oxide in an open test tube + heats tube. Heat causes the Hg(II) oxide to decompose into Hg and O. After rxn, student finds mass of the contents of the tube to be 9.7 g. Which one of the following describes these obs? 0.8 grams of Oxygen gas are lost from the tube
Sample A contains 92.3%carbon and 7.7% hydrogen. If sample B is the same substance, it will contain A) 80% carbon and 20% hydrogen. B) 92.3% carbon and 7.7% hydrogen. C) 83.3% carbon and 16.7% hydrogen. D) 85% carbon and 15% hydrogen 92.3% carbon and 7.7% hydrogen.
Which of the following parts (postulates) of Dalton's atomic theory has been modified in light of later discoveries? atoms are indivisible
Which of the following laws is NOT explained by Dalton's atomic theory? the periodic law
________ was the first person to propose a consistent "modern" atomic theory. Dalton
Nitrogen forms a number of different compounds with oxygen, depending upon the experimental conditions. This type of observation concerning the behavior of matter is summarized by the Law of Multiple Proportions
Which one of the following does NOT occur in a chemical reaction? Atoms are changed into other atoms
Which set of compounds illustrates the Law of Multiple Proportions? A) CH4, C2H6, C3H8 B) NO, NH3, NH4Cl C) H2O, H2 D) all of these CH4, C2H6, C3H8
Atoms of the same element that have different masses are called isotopes
How many grams of carbon are in 20.0 grams of CH4? A) 18.46 grams B) 14.98 grams C) 4.00 grams D) 8.00 grams 14.98 grams
One mole is of carbon is equal to A) 6.022 × 1023 atoms of carbons. B) 12.011 grams of carbon. C) Avogadro's number of atoms. D) all of the above. all of the above
The atomic masses for elements are relative masses determined by comparison with a standard reference.
Perhaps the greatest triumph of Mendeleev's periodic table was the prediction of the existence of undiscovered elements
Is it always possible to recycle and reuse materials? Yes, because atoms can only be rearranged in a chemical reaction
During a chemical reaction, matter can neither be created nor destroyed. A) True B) False True
Mendeleev arranged the elements in his periodic table solely in order of increasing atomic mass. A) True B) False True
Aristotle's idea that matter is continuous is still considered to be correct A) True B) False False
Democritus thought that real substances were mixtures of various types of atoms. A) True B) False True
Substance A contains 80% carbon and 20% hydrogen. Substance B contains 83% carbon and 17% hydrogen. A and B are the same substance. A) True B) False False
Created by: vtlove116