Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards
share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Chemistry Ch.9-16

TermDefinition
stoichiometry process of using a balanced chemical equation to determine the relative masses of reactants and products in a reaction
limiting reactant runs out first
excess reactant isn't fully used up
theoretical yield max amount of a product that can be formed when the limiting reactant is completely consumed
actual yield amount of product recovered in a reaction (most often less than theoretical yield)
percent yield percent of theoretical yield recovered in a chemical reaction %yield=actual yield/theoretical yieldX100
wave length distance between wave crests
frequency number of waves passing per second
velocity all electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed
ground state lowest energy level for electrons
excited state electrons have absorbed energy
electron orbital region of space around a nucleus where there is a 90% chance of finding an electron
principal energy level -each level has different # of sublevels -each sublevel is a different region of space(s,d,p,f)
orbital specific region of space inside a sublevel -up to 2 electrons in each orbital -each electron must have an opposite spin
electron configuration a way to display the location of all electrons in an element (look at electron config. periodic table) (Ex. Li: 1s^2, 2s^1)
core electrons electrons in inner levels
valence electrons electrons in outer sublevel
noble gas configuration shortcut for electron config. (Ex. Li: [He] 2s^1)
activeness of atoms -most chemically active metals=lower left -most chemically active nonmetals=upper right(except noble gasses) -properties of metalloids=between metals+nonmetals
size of atoms big atoms->small atoms, small atoms V big atoms
ionization energy amount of energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion
bond force that holds 2+ atoms together and makes them function as a unit
bond energy energy required to break a chemical bond
ionic bonding attraction between oppositely charged ions
ionic compound compound results when a metal reacts with a nonmetal to form cations and anions
covalent bonding atoms share electrons
polar covalent bond electrons are not shared equally because 1 atoms attracts shared electrons more than the other atom
electronegativity tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself
electronegativity on period table -increases left to right -decreases when going down a group
bonds depended on electronegativity -very similar=very little polarity bond -very different=very polar bond -difference>2.0=ionic bond
dipole moment property of a molecule in which the charge distribution can be represented by a center of positive charge and a center of negative charge
charges on ions -gr. 1 metals=1+ cations -gr. 2 metals=2+ cations -aluminum in group 3A=3+ cation -gr.7A=1- anions -gr. 6A=2- anions
anions and cations anions are negative and are larger cations are positive and are smaller
lewis structure representation of a molecule or polyatomic ion showing how valence electrons are arranged among the atoms in the molecule or ion (only valance electrons are included)
duet rule H and He both need 2 valance electrons to fill the first level
octet rule most atoms must have 8 valance electrons to be stable
bonding pair pair of electrons that are shared
lone pair(unshared pair) pair of electrons that aren't shared
single bond 1 pair of electrons are shared by 2 atoms
double bond 2 pairs of electrons are shared by 2 atoms
triple bond 3 pairs of electrons are shared by 2 atoms
resonance condition occurring when more than 1 valid lewis structure can be written for a particular molecule
molecular structure(geometric structure) 3-D arrangement of atoms in a molecule
bent or V-shape structure 2 bonds and 2 unshaired pairs on central atom(could also be double bond, single bond, and 1 unshaired pair)
linear structure 2 double bonds on central atom (or only 2 atoms in molecule)
trigonal pyramid structure 3 single bonds and an unshaired pair or central atom
tetrahedral structure 4 single bonds on central atom
valence shell electron pair repulsion(VSEPR) model model used to predict molecular geometry -the structure around a given atom is determined by minimizing repulsions between electron pairs
solution homogeneous solution that doesn't settle
alloy solid mixed with another solid
liquid solution solid, liquid, or gas mixed in with another liquid
gaseous solution solid, liquid, or gas mixed in with a gas
aqueous solution liquid solution in which water is the main component(most common)
solvent component present in largest amount
solute component present in lesser amount
ionic seperates into ions in solution
polar creates hydrogen bonds with other molecules and ions
non-polar no molecular interaction between molecules
what dissolves in polar and non-polar LIKE DISSOLVES LIKE
soaps and detergents huge molecules with both polar and non-polar parts-can dissolve in both polar and non-polar solvents
dilute relatively small amount of solute in mixture
concentrated relatively large amount of solute
unsaturated less than max amount of solute is dissolved in solution
saturated max amount of solute is dissolved in solution
supersaturated more than max amount of solute is dissolved in a solution -made by heating a saturated solution and adding more solute
solubility max number of grams of solute per 100g or 100mL fo water at a given temperature
solids in liquids rate of dissolving -agitation: increases -temperature: usually increases -increasing surface area: increases
gases in liquids rate of dissolving -agitation: decreases -temperature: decreases -increasing in pressure: increases
% composition by volume (Vsolute/Vsolution)X100
% composition by mass (MASSsolute/MASSsolution)X100
molarity concentration of solution involving moles -molarity=(MOLESsolute/VOLUMEsolution)
standard solution solution in which the concentration is accurately known
dilution process of adding solvent to a solution to lower the concentration of solute
stock solution beginning concentrated solution -more solvent=lower concentration(but total solute remains constant)
dilution equation M1V1=M2V2
neutralization reaction acid-base reaction
acid produces H+ ions in a solution
base produces OH- ions in a solution
STRONG acid or base completely dissociates in a solution
acid in water HA->H+ + A-
base in water (A)OH-> A+ + OH-
net ionic equation for neutralization: H+ + OH- = H2O
equivalent of an acid amount of acid that can furnish one mole of hydrogen ions
equivalent of a base amount of base that can furnish one mole of hydroxide ions
equivalent weight mass(g) of one equivalent of an acid or base
normality # of equivalents per 1L solution
Equilibrium NaVa=NbVb
colligative property property that is dependent only on the # of solute particles present in solution
freezing point depression adding more solute to a solution will lower the freezing point of the solution
boiling point elevation adding more solute to a solution will increase the boiling point of the solution
arrhenius model Acid-produce H= ions Base-produce OH- ions (more restrictive model)
bronsted-lowry model Acid-proton donor(H+) Base-proton acceptor(can be hydroxide, but also NH3)
hydronium ion H3O+ ion formed when a acid is added to water
conjugate acid substance formed when a proton is added to a base
conjugate base remaining substance when a proton is lost from an acid
conjugate acid-base pairs 2 substances related to each other by the donating + accepting of a single proton
change of charges in conjugates conjugate base: charge= -1 from original conjugate acid: charge= +1 from original
oxyacid acid in which the acidic hydrogen is attached to an oxygen atom
organic acid acid with a carbon atom backbone(usually weak)
amphoteric substance that can act as both an acid and a base(water)
ion-product constant Kw=[H+][OH-]=1.0 X 10^-14
pH equation Ph=-log[H+]
pOH equation pOH=-log[OH-]
what does pH + pOH equal 14
indicators chemicals that change color depending on the pH of a solution in which they are placed
titration technique in which a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of another solution
standard solution concentration is accurately known
buret device used for the accurate measurement of delivery of a given volume of liquid or solution
equivalence point(stoichiometric point) the point in a titration when enough titrant has been added to react exactly with the substance that is being titrated
titration curve plot of pH of solution verses volume of titrant added to a given solution
titration equation NaVa=NbVb
buffered solution solution that resists a change in pH when either an acid or base are added (consist of weak acid and it's conjugate base mixed together)
Created by: kaylee.baker