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5.111 Final

Vocab and Terms

TermDefinition
Thomson's atomic model Plum pudding model - positive ball with negative 'plums' floating inside.
Rutherford Alpha ray particles backstattering - Au atoms mostly empty, nucleus is positive. Planetary model OK, but said electrons would spiral into nucleus.
2 slit experiment Wave shot at two slits - waves form from both, and form interference pattern. This arrives from both constructive and destructive interference.
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Principle that says you can't know both the position and momentum of an electron.
n - principle 1st quantum number, describes energy (1, 2, 3, ...)
l - angular momentum 2nd quantum number, describes orbital (s, p, d, ...)
m - magnetic 3rd quantum number, describes behavior of atom (-l to +l)
Radial nodes Type of electron nodes that depend on distance from nucleus. (n-1-l)
Angular nodes Type of electron nodes that depend on angle from nucleus. (l)
Aufbau principle Principle that says you fill energy states 1 electron at a time
Pauli principle Principle that says no electron can have the same quantum numbers, and fill up one energy level at a time
Hund's principle Principle that says you fill up orbital subshells one electron at a time
Isoelectronic atoms Atoms with the same electron configuration
Ionization energy Amount of energy needed to remove an electron from the outermost shell of an atom
Electron affinity Change in energy of atom when electron is added to form negative ion
Electronegativity Tendency of an atom to attract a pairing bond of electrons
Atomic size Radius of atom. Generally increases as you move to the left of periodic table because nucleus positive charge increases, but shell size remains the same.
Formal charge Calculated: # e's in full shell - # valence - # bonds. Used to determine optimal Lewis structure
Steric number Calculated: # atoms bonded to central atom + # lone pairs on central atom. Used to determine geometry of molecule
Le Chatelier's principle Principle that says reaction will go towards side that reduces stress (that will lead to a value that leads Q to K)
Electrostatic (Polar) Type of interactions between molecules with a net dipole
Electrostatic (Non-polar) Type of interactions between molecules without a net dipole
Induction (Dipole-Induced-Dipole) Type of interactions between non-polar and polar molecules.
Dispersion (Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole, London Forces) Type of interactions between non-polar molecules that create small lasting dipoles (4th strongest)
Hydrogen bonding Type of interactions between nitrogen / oxygen / fluorine with hydrogen
Arrhenius acid Acid base - high amounts of H30+ - used in
Arrhenius base Acid base - low amounts of H30+ - used in
Bronsted-lowry acid Acid base - donates H+
Bronsted-lowry base Acid base - accepts H+
Lewis acid Acid base - accepts e-
Lewis base Acid base - donates e-
Acidic buffer Solution made out of a weak acid and its conjugate base
Basic buffer Solution made out of a weak base and its conjugate acid
Oxidation number Calculated: type of element. Adds up to atomic / molecule total charge.
Galvanic cell Type of cell that is spontaneous
Electrolytic cell Type of cell that is non-spontaneous and requires electricity to be driven
Coordination complexes Type of molecules formed by center transition metal and ligand molecules.
Coordination # Calculated: # of ligands attached to central transition metal
Chelating ligand Type of ligand that binds to central transition metal at multiple sites (monodentate, bi, tri, tetra, etc.)
Geometric isomers Type of coordination complexes that can be rearranged and keep same molecule
Optical isomers Type of coordination complexes that are non-superimposable mirror images of e/o
Created by: uriel_magana