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Chapter3Monroe

Review Guide for Test

QuestionAnswer
Law of definite proportions This states that a chemical compound always contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by weight or mass
Law of conservation of mass This states that mass cannot be created or destroyed during ordinary chemical and physical changes
Electron a subatomic particle that has a negative charge
Nucleus an atom's central region, which is made up of protons and neutrons
Proton a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that composes the nucleus of an atom
Neutron a subatomic particle that has no charge and that composes the nucleus of an atom
Atomic number the number of protons that compose the nucleus of an atom; this number is the same for all atoms of an element
Mass number the sum of protons and neutrons of the nucleus of an atom
Isotope an atom that has the same number of protons (atomic number) as other atoms of the same element but has a different number of neutrons (atomic mass)
Orbital a region in an atom where there is a high probability of finding electrons
Electromagnetic spectrum all of the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation
Ground state the lowest energy state of a quantized system
Excited state a state in which an atom has more energy than it does at its ground state
Quantum Number a number that specifies the properties of electrons in an atom
Pauli Exclusion Principle states that two particles of a certain class cannot be in the exact same energy state
Electron configuration the arrangement of electrons in an atom
Aufbau Principle states that the structure of each successive element is obtained by adding one proton to the nucleus of the atom and one electron to the lowest-energy orbital that is available
Hund's Rule states that for an atom in the ground state, the number of unpaired electrons is the maximum possible and these unpaired electrons have the same spin
Atomic mass the mass of an atom expressed in atomic mass units
Created by: sgrant123192