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Chapter 5 Vocabulary


electromagnetic radiation a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space
wavelength the length, frequency, amplitude, and speed
frequency the number of waves that pass a given point per second
amplitude the waves height from the origin to a crest, or from the origin to a trough
electromagnetic spectrum encompasses all forms of electromagnetic radiation
quantum the minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom
Planck's Constant has a value of 6.626 x 10-34 j * s, where J is the symbol for the joule, the SI unit of energy
photoelectric effect surfaces when light of a certain frequency shines on the surfaces
photon a particle of electromagnetic radiation with no mass that carries a quantum of energy
atomic emission spectrum an element is the set of frequencies of the electromagnetic waves emitted by atoms of an element
ground state the lowest allowable energy state of an atom
de broglie equation predicts that all moving particles have wave characteristics
heisenberg uncertainty principle states that it is fundamentally impossible to know precisely both the velocity and position of a particle at the same time
quantum mechanical model of the atom the atomic model in which electrons are treated as waves
atomic orbital a three-dimensional region around the nucleus
principal quantum numbers indicate the relative sizes and energies of atomic orbitals
principal energy levels specifies the atoms major energy levels
energy sublevels part of energy levels
electron configuraton arrangement of electrons in an atom
aufbau principle states that each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available
pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum or two electrons may occupy a single atomic orbital, but only if the electrons have opposite spins
hund's rule states that single electrons with the same spin must occupy each equal-energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite spins can occupy the same orbitals
valence electron are defined as electrons in the atom's outermost orbitals-generally those orbitals associated with the atom's highest principal energy level
electron-dot structure consisits of the element's symbol, which represents the atomic nucleus and inner-level electrons,surrounded by dots representing the atom's valence electrons.
Created by: Baby-Gurl2010