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Chapter 5

Electrons in Atoms

Electromagnetic Radiation a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space.
Wavelength the shortest distance btween equivalent points on a continuous wave.
Frequency is the number of waves that pass a given point per second.
Amplitude the wave's height from the orgin to a crest, or from the orgin to a trough.
Electromagnetic spectrum called the EM spectrum encompasses all forms of electromagnetic radiation.
Quantum the minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom.
Planck Constant has a value of 6.626x 10^34 J wheree J is the symbol for the joule, SI unit of energy.
Photoelectric effect electrons called photoelectrons are emitted from a metal's surface when a light of a certain frequency shines on the surface.
Photon a particle of electromagnetic radiation with no mass that carries a quantum of energy.
Atomic emission spectrum the set of frequencies of the electromagnetic waves emitted by atoms of the element.
Ground state the lowest allowable state of an atom.
De Broglie equation all moving particles have wave characteristics.
Heinsberg uncertainty principle states that it is fundamentally impossible to know precisely both the velocity and position of a particle at the same time.
Quantum mechanical model of the atom the atomic model in which electrons are treated as a waves is called the wave mechanical model of the atom.
Atomic orbital a three-dimensional region around the nucleus.
Principal quantum numbers indicate the relative sizes and energies of atomic orbitals.
Principal energy levels the atom's major energy levels.
Energy sublevels contained in principal energy levels.
Electron configuration the arranfement of electrons in an atom.
Aufbau principle states that each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available.
Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons may occupy a single atomic orbital, but only if the electrons have opposite spins.
Hund's rule states that single electrons with the same spin must occupy each equal-energy orbitals.
Valence electrons defined as electrons in the atom's outermost orbitals- generally those orbitals associated with the atom's highest principal energy level.
Electron-dot structure consist of the element's symbol, which represents the atomic nucleus and inner level electrons, surrounded by dots representing the atom's valence electrons.
Created by: kittyboo27