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Parasitology III

Parasitology test 3

Most common flea of dogs and cats Ctenocephalides felis
Name two parasites that Ctenocephalides felis can transmit. Dipylidium caninum and Dipetalonema reconditum
Name a physical characteristic of Ctenocephalides felis. Laterally compressed with pronotal and genal combs
Name the human flea. Pulex irritans
What flea has no combs but seta (hair) is found below the eye? Pulex irritans
Name a flea of poultry Echidnophaga gallinacea
Name a flea with a compressed head with no combs Echidnophaga gallinacea
What ectoparasite is important in transmitting the bubonic plague? Xenopsylla cheopsis
What is the major characteristic of Xenopsylla cheopsis? Rod-shaped thickening present on mesopleron (diagnostic)
How long is the flea lifecycle? 16-21 days (can be completed in 3 weeks)
What are the optimum temperature and humidity conditions for flea development? 65-80F, and 75-85% humidity
What is the lifespan of the flea on and off the host? 4-6 weeks on the host and 2 weeks off the host
Flea eggs dessicate if relative humidity drops below? 50%
What is the preferred food for flea larvae? Adult flea feces
Name 4 characteristics of localized or squamous Demodex canis? 1-5 lesions, majority spontaneously cure, non-puritic, lesions around eyes, mouth, and forelimbs
Name 4 characteristics of generalized Demodex canis? Coalescing lesions on body, >5 lesions, associated with poor prognosis, and extend to head, neck, leg, and trunk
Name 4 characteristics of Sarcoptes scabiei Burrowing mite, highly puritic, highly contagious, initial lesions on less haired areas (ears and elbows)
How long is the lifecycle of Sarcoptes scabiei? 3 weeks
What is the name of the feline scabies or head mange? Notedres cati
What is the scabies that can only be found on the cat? Notedres cati
What is the name for walking dandruff? Cheyletiella
How long can Cheyletiella survive off the host? 10 days
How long is the lifecycle of Cheyletiella? 3 weeks
Waht is the name of the ear mite found in the ear canal of dogs and cats? Otodectes cyanotes
How long is the lifecycle of Otodectes cyanotes? 3 weeks
What is the major physical characteristic of Chiggers? Stylostome
What life stage of chiggers is parasitic? Larvae
How long is the life cycle of Chiggers? 1 year (seasonal incidence)
What is the name of the red roost mite? Dermanyssus gallinae
Which tick has short mouthparts and an inornate capitulum? Rhipicephalus sanguineus (brown dog tick)
What is the most common tick of dogs? Rhipicephalus sanguineus (brown dog tick)
Name 3 diseases the Rhipicephalus sanguineus transmits? Babesia, Erlichia, and Hemobartonella
What is the name of the gulf coast tick? Amblyomma maculatum
What is the name of the lone star tick? Amblyomma americanum
What tick has long mouth parts and an ornate capitulum? Amblyomma americanum
What is the length of most tick lifecycles? 1 year
What is the name of the brown dog tick? Rhipicephalus sanguineus
What is the name of the black legged shoulder tick? Ixodes scapularis
What tick has long mouthparts and an inornate capitulum? Ixodes scapularis
Ixodes scapularis transmits what 3 diseases? Lyme disease, Tularemia, and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
What is the name of the american dog tick? Dermacentor variabilis
What tick has short mouthparts and an ornate capitulum? Dermacentor variabilis
Which tick is the major vector for Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever? Dermacentor variabilis
What is the name of the spinous ear tick? Otobium megnini
Which life stages of Otobium megnini feed? Larvae and nymphs
What are 3 characteristics of lice in dogs and cats? Uncommon to rare, highly host specific, need to treat 2 to break 3 week life cycle
Name a obligate myiasis agent agent that lays eggs around burrows of small mammals whose larvae are stimulated to hatch from body contact and warmth. Cuterebra
What is the major problem with Cuterebra? Aberrant migrations
What is the primary screwworm that attacks live tissue of wounds that is characterized by darkly pigmented tracheal tubes? Cochliomyia americanum
Which fly is reportable to the USDA? Cochliomyia americanum
What is the name of the blow fly and bottle flies that vary from black to blue? Phormia regina
Waht is the name of the flesh fly? Sarcophaga spp
Which fly has thoracic stripes and a checkered abdomen? Sarcophaga spp
Which fly feeds mainly on the tips of the ears and forelegs causing crusty bleeding lesions including hotspots? Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly)
What drug kills cheyletiella, lice, and ototdectes? Selamectin (Revolution)
Which 3 drugs kill Sarcoptes and Notoedres? Selamectin (Revolution), Fipronil (Frontline), and Fipronil + S-Methoprene
Which drug repels and kills ticks and mosquitos? Imidocloprid + Permethrin (Advantix)
Fenbendazole (Panacur) Ancylostoma, Toxocara, Trichuris, Taenia, and Giardia
Praziquantel + Pyrantel + Febantel (Drontal Plus) Dipylidium, Taenia, Anclyostoma, Toxocara, Trichuris
Ivermectin + Pyrantel (Heartguard Plus) Toxocara, Anclyostoma, Dirofilaria (Pv)
Milbemycin (Interceptor, Sentinel) Anclyostoma, Toxocara, Trichuris, Dirofilaria (Pv)
Selamectin (Revolution) Anclyostoma, Toxocara, Fleas, Ticks, Dirofilaria (Pv)
Thiabendazole (Mintazole) Strongyloides stercoralis
Piperazine (various generics) Toxocara, Toxascaris
Moxidectin (Proheart) Anclyostoma, Dirofilaria
Emodepside + Praziquantel (Profender) Anclyostoma, Toxocara, Taenia, Dipylidium
Metrinidazole (Flagyl) Giardia, Pentatrichomonas
Ponazuril (off-label) (Marquia) Isospora spp.
Methylbenzene Toxocara spp, Toxascaris, Anclyostoma, Uncinaria
Fenbendazole (Panacur) Anclyostoma, Toxocara, Trichuris, Taenia, Giardia
Praziquantel + Pyrantel (Drontal) Anclyostoma, Toxocara, Taenia, Dipylidium
Ivermectin (Heartguard) Dirofilaria (Pv)
Epsiprantel (Cestex) Taenia, Dipylidium
Pyrantel (Nemex) Anclyostoma, Toxocara
Praziquantel at elevated doses can be used to effectively treat what two parasites? Paragonimus kellicotti and Spirometra mansonoides
Which 6 drugs can giardia be effectively treated with? Furazolidone, Fenbendazole, Metrinidazole, Quinacrine (Atabrine), Albendazole, and Iprronidazole
Name 4 insect growth regulators. Methoprene, Pyriproxifen, Fenoxycarb, and Lufenuron
What is the vector and intermediate host for Habronema? House fly
What is the seasonal transmission for the spiruid stomach worms? Summer ("summer sores")
Name the 3 spiruid stomach worms. Habronema muscae, Habronema major, and Draschia megastoma
What stage of Habronema causes lesions in the skin which are aberrant sites of development L3
How are the spiruid stomach worms diagnosed? Larvated eggs in feces
What are the lesions from spiruid stomach worms? Stomach or aberrant sites
Where do the Trichostrongylus axei adults live? Glandular portion of stomach
What is a parasite of ruminants which infects horses? Trichostrongylus axei
What equine parasite has a peak transmission in the Fall? Gasterophilus spp
What parasite deposits eggs one at a time on hairs of a horse? Gasterophilus spp
What equine parasite causes pit like lesions in the stomach? Gasterophilus spp
What is the first nematode to establish as egg laying adults in foals? Strongyloides westeri
What is the prepatent period of Strongyloides westeri? 6-10 days
What is the transmission of Strongyloides westeri? Transmission milk, skin, oral
What is the prepatent period of Parascaris equorum? 10-12 weeks
What is the crowding effect that occurs with Parascaris equorum? Increased parasite numbers reduces parasite size
Whare are some clinical signs associated with Parascaris equorum? Respiratory signs, weight loss, anorexia, intestinal impaction, marked eosinophilia,
What is the most common equine tapeworm? Anoplocephala perfoliata
What is the intermediate host for Anoplocephala perfoliata? Cysticercoids in oribatid mite
Which equine tapeworm may produce ileal-cecal intussceptions? Anoplocephala perfoliata
Which equine tapeworm is found only in the small intestine? Anoplocephala magna
Which of the equine tapeworms is wedge-shaped? Anoplocephala perfoliata
Which of the equine tapeworms does not hhave lappets? Anoplocephala magna
What is the equine intracellular parasite of the small intestine? Eimeria leukarti
The presence of yellowish dots on the leg hairs of horses indicates the presence of which equine parasite? Gasterophilus spp
Which equine parasite is a potential cause of diarrhea in foals? Strongyloides westeri
Which parasite transmits L3's to foals in milk 48 hours post--partum Strongyloides westeri
A parasiite primarilyt of foals and yearlings which has a prepatent period of 10-12 weeks Parascaris equorum
An equine parasite that a small intestinal impaction and rupture may occur post treatment in the case of heavy infection Parascaris equorum
Which equine parasite causes small white focal spots on the surface of the liver? Parascaris equorum
Which equine parasite causes a potbelly, rough hair coat, thin foal? Parascaris equorum
What equine parasite causes ulceration and thickening of the ileocecal junction? Anoplocephala perfoliata
What is the peak bot fly season in Louisiana? Fall
What are the drugs of choice for treatment of Gasterophilus? Ivermectin and Moxidectin (once per year late Fall/early winter)
Do you find adult Strongyloides westeri in mares? Immunity to adults develops within 6 months. Mostly a parasite of foals and weanlings
Do Strongyloides westeri cause disease? Possibly diarrhea in foals
Large number of Parascaris equorum in the small intestine of a yearling that died due to an impacted intestine following anthelmintic treatment. Is this common? Yes
What can be used to remove the eggs of Parascaris equorum from the environment of a stall? Nearly impossible but 5% Lysol is effective
Anaplocephala are treatable with what drugs at which dosage? Pyrantel pamoate at 2x recommended dose or a mixture of ivermectin, praziquantel, or moxidectin and praziquantel are highly effective
This parasite causes large tumor like lesions with ulcerated centers in the stomach Draschia megastoma
What equine parasite causes granulomatious lesions in the skin known as summer sores? Draschia megastoma
What is the most common nematode of equids? Cyathostomes
Which equine parasite has external and internal leaf crowns? Cyathostomes
Where do the cyathostomes reside? Cecum and ventral colon
Which equine parasite is associated with seasonal diarrhea? Cyathostomes
The early third stage larvae of this parasite may be a hypobiotic stage Cyathostomes
This parasite causes seasonal diarrhea associatd with mucosal larval emergence Cyathostomes
What are the mucosal larvae of cyathostomes treated with? Killed using moxidectin or elevated doses of fenbendazole but not ivermectin
What equine parasite has larvae living in the large intestinal mucosa develop synchronously producing a sudden onset of severe diarrhea Cyathostomes
What is the hypobiotic stage of cyathostomes? Cyathostome L3
What is the prepatent period of cyathostomes? 6+ weeks
What is the peak transmission of Cyathostomes on the Gulf Coast? Late September - Spring (March - April)
What is the relationship between the EPG and parasite burden for cyathostomes They do not directly relate
What is the immunity in relation to cyathostomes? Immunity to reinfection is slow to develop (3-7 years)
What is the survival rate of L3 cyathostomes during the summer in the south vs. the northern temperate regions Low in the south, high in the north
What is the most pathogenic helminth parasite of horses? Strongylus vulgaris
What makes Strongylus vulgaris the most pathogenic parasite? It migrates through the vasculature and causes thrombosis, aneurysms, and infarctions
The migrations of larvae of this parasite produce lesions of the mesenteric arteries which result in colic. Strongylus vulgaris
Which equine parasite causes verminous arteritis and colic? Strongylus vulgaris
This parasite is a large strongyle which migrate mainly through the liver. Strongylus edentatus
Which equine parasite causes inflammation and edema in the perirenal fat and distinct tracts in the capsule of the liver? Strongylus edentatus
This parasite has egg laying females which cause irritation in the perianal region. Oxyuris equi
Which equine parasite causes loss of hair and pruritis at the tail head? Oxyuris equi
A large stronglye which produces ulcers with groups of worms in the ventral colon. Triodontophorus tenuicollis
Which drugs are effective in treating migrating strongyle larvae? Ivermectin and moxidectin
Which equine parasite is commonly linked with exposure to donkeys? Dictyocaulus arnfieldi
Which equine parasite causes microfilaria in the skin and causes seasonal dermatitis? Onchocerca cervicalis
Which equine parasite can you find adults in the nuchal ligament? Onchocerca cervicalis
What is the intermediate host for Onchocerca cervicalis? Culicoides
What is the vector for Babesia equi and Babesia caballi? Dermacentor
Trypanosoma is mechanically transmitted to horses primary by? Tabanid flies
What equine parasite causes filarid-like adults in the peritoneal cavity and microfilaria in the blood? Setaria equina
What is the causative agent of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis? Sarcocystis neurona (some associate with Neospora spp)
What is the main host for Sarcocystis spp.? Oppossums
What is the distribution of Sarcocystis neurona? Only in the Americas
What equine parasite causes asymmetrical muscular atrophy, ataxia, gait abnormalities, and a head tilt? Sarcocystis neurona
What is the primary treatment for Sarcocystis neurona? Ponazuril for 28 days
What are 2 groups of equine parasites that have begun to show resistance to drugs? Cyathostomes and Parascaris
What is the test for anthelminthic drug resistance? Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test.
How do you conduct a fecal egg count reduction test? 1. Test horses with greater than 100 EPG. 2. Test as many horses per drug on a farm as possible but minimum of 4 horses. 3. Take fecal samples at day 0 and day 10-14. Day 0 being treatment day. 4. Resistant if less than 80-90% reduction of STRONGLYE FEC
How often should you repeat fecal egg count reduction tests? Yearly intervals
What are two concepts to prevent resistance to macrolide lactones? Reduce exposure of cyathostome populations to ML and maintain the refugia
What is the benefit of moxidectin over ivermectin? Ivermectin does not significantly reduce the mucosal larval refugia, whereas moxidectin does
What is the half-life of moxidectin over ivermectin? Moxidectin productes a longer egg reappearance period, reducing the number of treatments required
What are 4 factors to consider while determining the level of parasite control required? Age, use, stocking rate, private vs. grouped housing
What is the parasite control protocol for treating foals for Parascaris equorum? Treat foals at 8-10 weeks before 12 week PPP to reduce pasture contamination
When is the best time to use larvicidal compounds to reduce pasture contamination? Late summer or fall
What are some alternative control strategies for preventing equine parasites? Nematode trapping fungi, removal of feces
What are the two best parasite control strategies? Seasonal treatment and selected treatment
What anthelmintics are effective against cyathostomes? Moxidectin at normal dose and fenbendazole at 2x recommended dose.
Does drug resistance occur against cyathostomes and if so to which drugs? Commonly occurs. Against pyrantel salts, benzimidazoles, piperazine, and probenzimadizoles
What is the peak transmission of cyathostomes in Louisiana? Fall, winter (unless temps drop below freezing), and spring
When is the seasonal emergence of larval cyathostomes and what is it called? Winter or early spring. Called larval cyathostomiasis
What drugs are efficacious against the encysted stages (EL3, L3, and L4) of cyathostomes? Moxidectin at regular dose and fenbendazole at 2x dose. NOT ivermectin
What is the hypobiotic stage of cyathostomes? EL3
Which stage of Strongyus vulgaris is found in the cranial mesenteric and ileocecal colic arteries? L4
What treatment is efficacious against the migrating larvae of Strongylus vulgaris? Fenbedazole, thiabendazole, ivermectin, and moxidectin
What causes the rat tail appearance of the tail head in horses with an Oxyuris equi infection? Deposition of the eggs in the anal region is an irritant and horses rub their tails producing the rat tail appearance
Why are Oxyuris equi eggs rarely found in the feces? The eggs are laid on the perineum region
What is the appearance of the Oxyuris equi eggs? Operculated and embyronated and yellow to brown in color
How are horses thought to be infected with Sarcocystis neurona? Food stuffs contaminated with opossum feces
How is diagnosis of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis made? Largely dependent of clinical evaluation but a non-reliable Western blot assay is available
Which equine ectoparasite has larvae that develop in moving water? Black flies
Which equine ectoparasite causes dermatitis in the medial thigh and ears? Black flies
Which equine ectoparasite are generally confined to the wooded edge so larger pastures are best for peak times? Tabanid flies
Which equine ectoparasite generally do not go indoors? Tabanid flies
Ear nets can be used as an exclusion device for which equine pest? Black flies
Face masks can be used as exclusion devices for which equine pests? House and face flies
What causes sweet itch and what is it transmitted by? Caused by Onchocerca cervicalis and is transmitted by Culicoides
Which equine ectoparasite causes hairloss at the base of tail and base of mane and induces a seasonal familial hypersensitivity? Culicoides
Which equine ectoparasite is a poor flier and a fan or a blanket can be used as an exclusion device? Culicoides
Which equine ectoparasite stands with their posterior to the ground and is found usually on the legs? Stable flies
What is the best control for stable flies? Proper hay control and disposal
Which equine ectoparasite feeds head down? Horn flies
Which equine ectoparasite only matures in cow manure? Horn flies and face flies(not found in LA)
Which equine ectoparasite sits parallel to the surface? House fly
Causes severe hypertrophic gastritis in snakes Cryptosporidium serpentis
What is the primary clinical sign of Cryptosporidium serpentis? Post-prandial regurgitation
What is the therapy for Cryptosporidium serpentis? No effective treatment
What parasite causes the stomach of a snake to bulge and be easily palpated? Cryptosporidium serpentis
How is the diagnosis for Cryptosporidium serpentis made? Cysts are passed in the feces and identified by acid-fast staining
What is the lifecycle of Cryptosporidium serpentis? Direct
What is a highly pathogenic amoeba of lizards and snakes and the most important amoeba of reptiles? Entamoeba invadens
What is the transmission of Entamoeba invadens? Direct with cysts passed from one host to another
What are the clinical signs associated with Entamoeba invadens? Anorexia and weight loss
Which exotic parasite causes hepatomegaly and necrotizing gastroenteritis? Entamoeba invadens
What is the treatment for Entamoeba invadens? Elevate enclosure temp to >33 degrees and metronidazole and antibiotics
What is Entamoeba invadens usually accompanied by? An opportunistic gram-negative organism
What is a common pinworm of reptiles, especially turtles and lizards? Tachygonetria
Which exotic parasite is usually non-pathogenic and may even facilitate breakup of feces in colon and actually prevent impactions? Tachygonetria
Where do adult Tachygonetria live? In the colon
What is the diagnosis of Tachygonetria? Unembryonated eggs passed in feces
What is the treatment for Tachygonetria? Fenbendazole
What parasite is found in the mucus layer overlying the epidermis and in tunnels? Pseudocapillaroides xenopi
Which exotic parasite has embryonated eggs with bipolar plugs? Pseudocapillaroides xenopi
How is Pseudocapillaroides xenopi treated? Thiabendazole and Ivermectin
What can trematode infections cause in reptiles? Weight loss, dyspnea, pulmonary infections (either GI or pulmonary)
How are reptile trematode infections diagnosed? Bronchial washings or eggs in feces
What is the treatment for reptile trematode infections? Praziquantel
What is the transmission for cestodes in reptiles? Ingestion of intermediate host such as copepods
What is the most important cyclophyllidean tapeworm of reptiles? Ophiotaenia
What major clinical sign is seen from a reptile tapeworm (cestode) infection? Chronic enteritis
How are reptile cestode infections diagnosed and treated? Eggs in feces containing hexacanth embryo and Praziquante (to treat adult infections)
What is the snake hookworm? Kalicephalus sp
What is the transmission of snake hookworms? Direct by skin penetration
What are the clinical signs and treatment for snake hookworms? Anemia and hemorragic ulcers. Treat with fenbendazole
Which snake parasite inhabits the terminal esophagus and stomach? Ophidascaris
Which snake parasite causes gastric impactions and regurgitation and diarrhea? Ophidascaris
Which snake parasite causes lesion including esophagitis and gastritis? Ophidascaris
Which snake parasite can you commonly find aduts in the lung? Pentastomes
Where are the larvae and nymphs of Pentastomes found? In the SQ tissue
How does transmission of Pentastomes occur? By ingestion of an intermediate mammalian host (wild rodents)
What is the treatment for Pentastomes? No effective treatment but they can be surgically removed
Can Pentastomes be zoonotic and if so which stage? Yes, nymphal stages
What is the name of the snake mite? Ophionyssus natricis (know spelling)
What snake parasite is found under the scales and between the spectacle and the periocular scales? Ophionyssus natricis
What can severe infestations of Ophionyssus natricis cause? Anemia and debilitation
What parasite of geese is found in erythrocytes and results in anemia? Plasmodium circumflexum
What is the treatment for Plasmodium circumflexum? Chroloquine and pyrimethamine
What is the intermediate host for Plasmodium circumflexum? Mosquitoes
Which avian parasite causes splenomegaly and hepatomegaly? Plasmodium circumflexum
What parasite causes "canker" in pigeons? Trichomonas gallinae (know spelling)
What is the transmission of Trichomonas gallinae? Trophozoites (no cysts) in pigeons milk or in contaminated drinking water
What parasite is most common in squabs? Trichomonas gallinae
Which parasite causes accumulation of greenish fluid or cheesy material in the mouth and crop especially the soft palate of pigeons? Trichomonas gallinae
What avian parasite causes necrotic lesions of the esophagus, crop and proventriculus and hepatic abscesses? Trichomonas gallinae
How is Trichomonas gallinae diagnosed? Exudate (trophozoite)
What is the treatment for Trichomonas gallinae? Metronidazole
Which coccidia of birds is transmitted directly and which is transmitted indirectly? Directly = Eimeria, Indirectly = Sarcocystis
What are the clinical signs of coccidiosis in birds? Generally asymptomatic infections can flare up under stress.
What avian parasite sometimes inhabits the oral cavity and others inhabit the intestinal tract? Capillaria contorta
What are the clinical signs of Capillaria contorta? Caseous oral and pharyngeal lesions, emaciation, and death
How is Capillaria contorta diagnosed and treated? Diagnosed by eggs in exudate or fecal. Treated with Fenbendazole
What is the common ascarid of birds? Ascaridia
What is the transmission of Ascaridia in birds? Direct by consumption of embryonated eggs or indirect by ingestion of fish
Where are Ascaridia adults usually found? Small intestine (or proventriculus, ventriculus, and large intestine)
What are the clinical signs of Ascaridia in birds? Unthriftiness and peritonitis
How is diagnosis of Ascaridia in birds made and treated? Unembyronated eggs in mutes. Two egg types; typical round and ellipsoidal, bipolar egg. Treat with Fenbendazole
Why does the balding fat man not eat sushi? Ascaridia (problem with migration looking for fish intermediate host)
Acanthocephaliasis is commonly found in which birds? Raptorial birds
What is a key physical characteristic of Acanthocephaliasis? Retractable proboscis
What are clinical signs associated with Acanthocephaliasis? Intestinal perforation and peritonitis
Where are Acanthocephaliasis generally found in the bird? Distal small intestine
What is the transmission of fluke infections in raptors? By intermediate hosts
Where are trematodes generally found in raptors? Duodenum and hepatobiliary tree
How are trematode infections in raptors generally diagnosed and treated? Floatation of sedimentation and treat with Praziquantel
What kind of lice are found on birds? ONLY chewing lice (Mallophaga), NO sucking lice
What are clinical signs of lice on birds? Poor feather coat, excessive preening, unthriftiness
How are lice treated on birds? 2% Carbaryl powder
What is the name of the "Northern fowl mite" that commonly infests birds? Ornithonyssus sylviarum (know spelling)
Which exotic ectoparasite is identified by the "tongue-like" tapering of the dorsal plate? Ornithonyssus sylviarum
What are the clinical signs associated with Ornithonyssus sylviarum? Irritation, weight loss, exsanguination (will feed on people)
Where are Ornithonyssus sylviarum generally found? Vent and nests of birds
What is the treatment for Ornithonyssus sylviarum? 2% Carbaryl powder
Which form of coccidia are rabbits most commonly infected with? Hepatic Eimeria stiedae (know name)or intestinal coccidia
What are the clinical signs associated with hepatic Eimeria stiedae? Hepatomegaly with dilated bile ducts appearing as yellowish granulomatous lesions throughout the liver
How is Eimeria stiedae diagnosed? Examining bile for oocysts
What areas of the intestine does Eimeria stiedae affect? Colon and cecum
What is the most pathogenic amoeba of primates? Entamoeba histolytica (know spelling)
Which primates are more commonly infected by Entamoeba histolytica? Feral Old World monkeys
What is the diagnostic feature of Entamoeba histolytica? They inhabit the cecum and colon where they ingest RBC's
How many nuclei do the cysts of Entamoeba histolytica in the large intestine contain? Up to 4 nuclei
Which primates are clinical signs of Entamoeba histolytica worse in? More severe in young monkeys and in New World monkeys (can be fatal)
What are the gross lesions associated with Entamoeba histolytica? Flask-shaped and fatal abscessation in the liver, lungs, or CNS
How is Entamoeba histolytica diagnosed? Trophozoites are found in wet smears of colonic feces or PAS stain
How is Entamoeba histolytica treated? Sanitation, control of mechanical vectors (flies and cockroaches) and Metronidazole
What are the two common genera of trichostrongylid nematodes that parasitize exotic hoofstock? Haemonchus and Ostertagia
What are clinical signs associated with trichostrongylid nematodes that parasitize exotic hoofstock? Weight loss, diarrhea, and poor body condition
What are the challenges associated with managing trichostrongylid nematodes that parasitize exotic hoofstock? High stocking density, anthelmintic resistance, getting anthelmintic into animals
What are strategic treatment plans associated with trichostrongylid nematodes that parasitize exotic hoofstock? Mineral blocks, feed additives, or pour ons
What is a common lungworm found in opossums? Didelphostrongylus hayesi
What is the infective stage and intermediate host for Didelphostrongylus hayesi? Infective L3 stage and terrestrial snail intermediate host
What parasite of opossums causes severe respiratory distress? Didelphostrongylus hayesi
What are the typical necropsy findings associated with Didelphostrongylus hayesi? Verminous pneumonia including granulomatous bronchopneumonia
How is the diagnosis made for Didelphostrongylus hayesi and what is the treatment? Baermann fecal examination for first-stage larvae. Treat with Fenbendazole
What can be a incidental finding during necropsy in rabbits? Rabbit metacestodiasis
What is the treatment for Rabbit metacestodiasis? No treatment. Prevent rabbits from grazing on grass frequented by dogs
What is the most common mite found on mammals? Sarcoptes scabiei (know spelling)
What is the transmission for Sarcoptes scabiei? Direct by contact or indirect by environmental contamination
What are clinical signs for chronic Sarcoptes scabiei infections? Hyperkeratotic and lichenified skin
What are the two hypersensitivity reactions associated with Sarcoptes scabiei? Type I and type IV
What stages of Sarcoptes scabiei live in tunnels? Females, eggs, larvae, and nymphs
How long does it take for Sarcoptes scabiei eggs to mature into adults? 2 weeks
What can be used to enhance Sarcoptes scabiei detection? 10% KOHat 37 degrees C for an hour
Created by: callieand