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CP14 15

GCSE comboned

change of state The changing of matter from one state to another, for example from solid to liquid.
chemical change A change that results in the formation of new substances.
compress To squash something together to make it shorter or smaller.
conserved A quantity that is kept the same throughout, for example a substance does not change mass when it changes state.
density The mass of a substance per unit volume. It has units such as kg/m3 or g/cm3.
kinetic theory The model that explains the properties of different states of matter in terms of the movement of particles.
physical change A change in which no new substances are formed, such as changes of state.
state of matter One of three different forms that a substance can have: solid, liquid or gas.
sublimation When a solid changes directly to a gas without becoming a liquid first
specific heat capacity The energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of a substance by 1 C.
specific latent heat The energy taken in or released when 1 kg of a substance changes state.
temperature A measure of how hot something is.
thermal energy A term used to describe energy when it is stored in hot objects. The hotter something is, the more thermal energy it is storing. It is sometimes called heat energy.
absolute zero The temperature at which the pressure of a gas drops to zero and the particles stop moving. It is −273 C or 0 K.
kelvin (K) The unit in the Kelvin temperature scale. One kelvin (1 K) is the same temperature interval as 1 C.
Kelvin temperature scale A temperature scale that measures temperatures relative to absolute zero.
kinetic energy A term used to describe energy when it is stored in moving things.
pressure The force on a certain area. It is measured in pascals or N/m2.
direct proportion A linear relationship in which one variable doubles as the other does.
elastic An elastic material changes shape when there is a force on it but returns to its original shape when the force is removed.
extension The amount by which a spring or other stretchy material has stretched. It is worked out from the stretched length minus the original length.
inelastic An inelastic material changes shape when there is a force on it but does not return to its original shape when the force is removed
linear relationship A relationship between two variables shown by a straight line on a graph. For a linear relationship the line does not have to go through the origin.
non-linear relationship A relationship between two variables that does not produce a straight line on a graph.
spring constant A measure of how stiff a spring is. The spring constant is the force needed to stretch a spring by 1 m.
work done A measure of the energy transferred when a force acts through a distance.
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