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Example: Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers
Antagonist: The principal character in opposition to the protagonist or hero
Example: In “The Most Dangerous Game,” General Zaroff is the antagonist.
Dynamic - changes/learns something
Static - remains the same
Flat - not well-developed
Round - well-developed
Conflict: The problem or struggle between opposing forces in a story that triggers the action; there are five basic types of conflict: person against person, person against society, person against nature, person against self, and person against fate
Connotation: The surrounding emotional feelings associated with a word
Example: The word cuisine means cooked or prepared food; however, it has a connotation of elegance and sophistication.
Denotation: The dictionary definition of a word
Dialect: A form of language spoken by people of a certain region or group
Dialogue: A conversation between two or more characters
Diction: Word choice intended to convey a certain effect
Euphemism: the substitution of a mild, indirect, or vague expression for one thought to be offensive, harsh, or blunt.
Figurative Language: Language that is expanded beyond its usual literal meaning; for example, simile, metaphor, and personification (most common)
Flashback: A part of the plot that moves back in time and then returns to the present
Foreshadowing: Clues that hint at what is going to happen later in the story
Example: In “The Most Dangerous Game,” the pistol shots that Rainsford hears on his yacht foreshadow the evil type of hunting that is taking place on the island and the fact that he will become the hunted.
Genre: A kind of writing based on its style, form, and content
Example: novel, short story, folktale, myth, poem, play, or non-fiction
Hyperbole: A figure of speech in which an exaggeration or the obvious stretching of the truth is used to emphasize strong feeling or to create a humorous effect
Example: I could sleep for a year. This book weighs a ton.
Idiom: an expression whose meaning is not predictable from the usual meanings of its constituent elements, as kick the bucket or hang one's head.
Imagery: A set of mental pictures; language that appeals to the five senses
Example: “I spot the hills/With yellow balls in autumn./I light the prairie cornfields/Orange and tawny gold clusters…”
–“Theme in Yellow” by Carl Sandburg
Irony: Incongruity between what actually happens and what might be expected to happen
Example: Rainsford swims back to the castle and surprises General Zaroff instead of drowning.
Juxtaposition: an act or instance of placing close together or side by side, especially for comparison or contrast.
Foil characters
*Metaphor: A direct comparison of unlike things without using like or as
Example: “Morning is a new sheet of paper for you to write on.”
-“Metaphor” by Eva Merriam
Onomatopoeia: The use of words that imitate the sounds they describe
Example: buzz, bang, plop, crackle, moo, smack, pow, wham, or quack
Oxymoron: A rhetorical figure in which contradictory terms are combined
Example: deafening silence, cruel kindness, icy hot, or jumbo shrimp
Personification: Giving human characteristics to a non-human entity
Example: The clock is running.
Plot: Events in the story; what happened in the story
*Point of view: The vantage point from which a story is told
Example: First person (author uses I), third person limited (author uses he, she, or they, but is limited to a complete knowledge of one character), or third person omniscient (author uses he, she, or they and is all-knowing)
Protagonist: The main character or hero in a piece of work
Example: Priscilla or Rainsford
Pun: A play on words that are identical or similar in sound but have sharply diverse meanings
Example: In Romeo and Juliet, Mercutio is dying and says, “Ask for me tomorrow, and you shall find me a grave man.”
Satire: A literary device used to ridicule or make fun of human vices or weaknesses
Setting: The time and place in which a literary work takes place
Simile: The comparison of two unlike things using like or as
Example: “…And an orange moon rises/To lead them, like a shepherd, toward dawn.”
-“Stars” by Gary Soto
Symbol: A person, place, thing, or event used to stand for something abstract such as an idea or emotion
Syntax: The order of words in a sentence
Theme: The author’s statement in a literary work- Ex. Do not judge someone until you walk in his shoes.
Tone: Refers to the author’s attitude toward the subject, characters, or reader
Methods of Persuasion:
Ethos - ethical appeal
Pathos -emotional appeal
Logos - logical appeal
Created by: JBauman23