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Study Guide

Elements are pure substances that cannot be changed into simpler substances;composed of on type of atom
Compounds are pure substances that are composed of two or more types of elements;can only be changed into simpler substances called elements by chemical changes
Mixtures are composed of different substances that are mixed together;can be separated easily into their component substances
Luster having a shiny surface or reflecting light brightly
Conductors heat and electricity move through them easily
Malleable ability to be hammered into different shapes
Ductile ability to be drawn into a wire
High Density heavy for their size
Dull not shiny
Nonconductors heat and electricity do not move through them easily
Brittle break or shatter easily
Families/groups are columns of elements on the peroidic table that have many similar properties;usually numbered 1-18
Metals a major classification of elements generally located on the left side of the peroidic table
Nonmetals a major classification of elements generally located on the right side of the peroidic table
Chemical Symbols show atoms of the elements composing a substances
Chemical Formulas are constructed from the symbols of the elements composing the substances
Acids can be indentified by their sour taste
Bases can be indentified by their bitter taste
pH is a measure of the concentration of solutions of acids and bases and is measured on the scale of 1-14; a basic solution has a pH greater than 7 and a acidic solution has a pH less than 7
Indicators are substances that can be used to determine whether a solution is an acid or a base
Litmus Paper Blue litmus paprer turns red in an acid and stays blue in a base. Red litmus paper turns blue in a base and stays red in a acid; both red and blue litmus paper turn purple in a solution that is neutral
pH paper can turn a series of colors in a solution of pH;the color of the paper is compared to the chart of the vial to determine the pH
Phenolphthalein turns magneta in a strong base and stays clear in acid
Chemical Equations are used to represent chemical reactions that have occured;contained the chemical formulas for the substances that mixed and the new substances that are formed
Reactants the substances that are mixed in a chemical reaction are clled the reactants and appear on the left side of the arrow in a chemical equation
Products the new substances that are formed in a chemical reaction are called the products and appear on the right side of the arrow ina chemical equation
Law of Conservation of Matter is based on countless experiments in which the mass of the reactants has been found to equal the mass of the products
Balanced Chemical Equation has the same number of each kind of atom on both sides of the arrow
Physical Properties can be observed and measured without changing the kind of matter being studied
Chemical Properties are not usually visable
Melting Point is the temperature at which a solid can change to a liquid
Boiling Point i sthe temperature at which a liquid can change to a gas
Density is the measure of the relative "heaviness" of objects with a constant volume; is the mass of a given volume of a substances
Color of a given substances is distinctive and can be used to help idntify a substance
Chemical Reactivity is the tendency of a substances to undergo a chemical reaction usually with other spefic substances
Physical Changes do not change the compositon of a substance only the physical properties
Chemical Change a substnces changes from one state of matter to another
Sumblimation a substance change directly from soild to a gas
Deposition a substance changes directly from gas to a solid
Color Change a substance changes color chemically
Temperature Change a substance changes tempature after being mixed with other substances chemically
Precipitate Formation two or more liquids are mixed and a solid forms chemicallyex:lemon juice and milk
Gas formation a substances are mixed or heated and a gas is given off chemically
Created by: dropitlowgurl