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Year 8 science exam

Chemistry component of the exam

Melting Change of state from a solid to a liquid
Freezing Change of state from a liquid to a solid
Condensing Change of state from a gas to a liquid
Evaporating Change of state from a liquid to a gas
Deposition Change of state from a gas to a solid
Sublimation Change of state from a solid to a gas
The particle model All substance are made up of tiny particles that are always moving. The hotter the substance is, the faster the particles move
Particles in a solid Held very close together by strong bonds,
Particles in a liquid Held together by bonds, however, the bonds are not as strong as a solid, they are free to move in a 'rolling' motion
Particles in a gas Held together by weak bonds, they have a lot of energy and are in constant motion
Atom The smallest particle in chemistry
Proton A positive sub-atomic particle that exist in the center of the atom
Electron A negative sub-atomic particle that orbits around the center of the atom (nucleus) in different energy levels
Neutron A neutral sub-atomic particle that exist in the center of the atom
Nucleus The center of the atom that contain the protons and neutrons
Chemical symbol The symbol that is used to represent an element
Atomic number The smaller number connected to the symbol, this represents that number of protons that the atom has
Relative Atomic Mass This is the larger number connected to the symbol, this represents the number of protons AND the number of neutrons
Element A single atom
Molecule At least TWO atoms that are held together by chemical bonds. It can by one atom or two non-metallic atoms
Group Vertical columns on the periodic table
Period Horizontal rows on the periodic table
Compound Two or more different atoms, with at least one of them being a metallic element.
Metals Found on the right of the periodic table. They're good conductors, they can be polished, they're malleable, They're ductile, they can be made into wire, they're often solid at room temperature (expect Mercury)
Non-metals Found on the left of the periodic table. They're poor conductors, they can NOT be polished, they're NOT malleable, They're NOT ductile.
Metalloids Found on the Zig-Zag step on the periodic table, they are the in-between group of metals and non-metals. As a result, they have some features from both ground. They're semi-conductive.
Nobel Gas Group 8 (or 18) in the periodic table, they're not reactive
Physical reaction These are reactions that are reversible
Chemical reactions There are reactions that are irreversible
Five types of evidence for chemical change Colour change, Smell is produced, new matter is created, gas was created, heat or light was created.
Physical properties Anything you can observe with your five senses
Chemical properties Describes how a substance combines with another substance or how new chemicals are formed.
Products These are the compounds/molecules are are coming together in a chemical reaction, they're always on the left of the equation
Reactants These are the new compounds/molecules that are created as a result of the chemical reaction. They're always on the left of the equation
Reaction Rate How quickly a chemical reaction occurs
Four ways in alter the reaction rate Increase temperature, increase concentration, increase surface area, add a catalyst
Rusting This is an example of corrosion. It is a flaky substance that comes off iron.
Corrosion A chemical reaction that occurs when a substance in the air or water has metal around it that it that is being 'eating away'
Increasing the rate of rust Adding salt to the water will increase the rate of reaction, salt acts like a catalyst in this reaction
Rust protection Surface protecting is a way of coating iron to prevent rust. Another way to protect rust is to add a layer of zinc, this is called galvanizing
Created by: NWSP12


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