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Chapter 17 Key Point


What is the smallest part of an element that can still be identified as that element? An atom
What element makes up 90% of all the atoms in the universe? Hydrogen
In what material do atoms move the slowest? Solids
What do scientists call the constant moving of particles just large enough to be seen? Brownian Motion
What is the most common molecule? Water (H20)
Do elements in compounds that are made from these elements have the same properties? No, for example, water does not behave the same way hydrogen and oxygen do.
Where is the mass of the atom primarily located? in the nucleus
What two atomic particles are found in the nucleus, and what is their mass? Protons, neutrons. Mass of each is equal to one.
What is an isotope? It is an element that has the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons.
Where can you find electrons in the atom? In the orbital shell.
How many electrons are in the first, second, and third outer shell? Two in the first shell, eight in the second shell, and the outer shell can't hold any more than eight.
Like charges do what? For example: two negatives repel
Unlike charges do what? Attract
Which subatomic particle has no charge? Neutron
What determines the atoms physical and chemical properties? the arrangement of the electrons in the shells.
What are the four physical and chemical properties of an atom? 1. melting and freezing points 2. electric conductiviy 3. taste, texture, appearance, and color 4. ability to combine with other elements
Why do atoms share or transfer electrons? to have eight electrons in the outer shell
What is the attraction between protons and electrons that cause them to combine? chemical bonding
What kind of bond is formed when two atoms share atoms? a covalent bond
What kind of bond is formed when electrons are transferred between atoms? an ionic bond
When atoms have a net charge either positive or negative, what is it called? an ion
How is the periodic table organized? by rows and groups
What does the atomic number tell you? the number of protons and electrons
What does the atomic mass number tell you? the number of neutrons and protons
What does the atomic mass number tell you? the number of neutrons and protons
If you go across left to right on the periodic table each element has one more_______and_______than the one before. proton, electron
As you read down, each element has one more_______than filled to capacity than the element above it. shell
What are the four phases of matter, and give an example of each? 1. solid-ice 2. liquid-water 3. gas-steam4. plasma-water heated over 2000 degrees C
Created by: cdeutsch