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Respiratory System

Ch. 11- Respiratory

The respiratory system provides oxygen to body cells for energy
Respiration to transport air into the lungs and to facilitate the diffusion of Oxygen into the blood stream.
External respiration movement of oxygen from the lungs to the blood and movement of carbon dioxide from the blood to the lungs
Oxygen is inhaled into the lungs
Oxygen passes through the alveoli of the lungs into the pulmonary bloodstream
Carbon dioxide passes from the blood through the same capillaries into the lungs and is exhaled
Internal respiration movement of oxygen from the blood to the tissue cells and movement of carbon dioxide from tissue cells to the blood
Inhaled oxygen circulates from the pulmonary bloodstream in the lungs, back through the heart, to the systemic bloodstream, to the body cells
The three major parts of the respiratory sytem the airway, the lungs, and the muscles of respiration.
The airway includes nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles
The airway carries air between the lungs and the body’s exterior
The entrance to the nose nostrils or nares
Air enters the body through the nose and mouth
The nose filters & cleans inspired air
The nasal cavity is divided into left and right chambers by a dividing wall called the septum
The paranasal sinuses are hollow areas or cavities within the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity
Paranasal sinuses are lined with mucous membranes
Cilia are hair-like projections on mucous membranes
The cilia sweep dirt and foreign material toward throat for elimination
The pharynx airway that connects the mouth and nose to the larynx
The throat is the pharynx
Epiglottis covers the opening of larynx when swallowing
Nasopharynx behind the nose; contains the adenoids
Oropharynx behind the mouth; contains the palatine tonsils
Laryngopharynx behind the larynx
Nasopharynx allows for air passage
Oropharynx & Laryngopharynx allow for air, food, and drink to pass
Larynx contains the vocal cords, which vibrate as air passes through the space between them (glottis), producing sound
The Larynx Connects the pharynx with the trachea
Known as the voice box larynx
The larynx forms the adam's apple
The trachea extends into the chest and serves as a passageway for air to the bronchi
The windpipe trachea
Bronchioles smallest branches of the bronchi
Trachea branches into two tubes called the bronchi
The bronchioles are air sacs
The Lungs two cone-shaped, spongy organs consisting of the alveoli, blood vessels, elastic tissue, and nerves
The left lung has 2 lobes
Right Lung has 3 lobes
Apex uppermost part of lung
Base lower part of lung
Hilum portion in midline region of the lung where blood vessels, nerves, and bronchial tubes enter and exit the lungs
Pleura double-folded membrane that surrounds the lungs
Parietal Pleura outer layer of pleura, which lines thoracic cavity
Visceral Pleura inner layer of pleura, which covers lungs
Pleural Space small space between the pleural membranes
Inhalation equals inspiration
Eupnea normal breathing
Apnea without breathing
Dyspnea difficult breathing
Inspection visual examination of the external surface of the body as well as of its movements and posture
Palpation process of examining, by application of the hands or fingers to the external surface of the body, to detect evidence of disease or abnormalities in the various organs
Auscultation process of listening for sounds within the body, usually to the sounds of the thoracic or abdominal viscera, to detect some abnormal condition, or to detect fetal heart sounds
Percussion use of the fingertips to tap the body lightly but sharply to determine the position, size, and consistency of an underlying structure and the presence of fluid or pus in a cavity
Bradypnea abnormally slow breathing
Hyperpnea increased rate & depth of breathing in response to exercise, pain
Orthopnea dyspnea that occurs when a person is lying down
Cough Forceful and sometimes violent expiratory effort preceded by a preliminary inspiration
Nonproductive cough dry cough
Productive cough wet cough
Cyanosis slightly bluish, grayish, slatelike, or dark discoloration of the skin due to the presence of abnormal amounts of reduced hemoglobin in the blood
Dysphonia difficulty in speaking
Epistaxis nosebleed
Expectoration act of spitting out saliva or coughing up materials from the air passageways leading to the lungs
Hemoptysis expectoration of blood arising from the oral cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchi, or lungs
Hypercapnia increased amount of carbon dioxide in the blood
Hypoxemia Insufficient oxygenation of the blood
Hypoxia Deficiency of oxygen
Kussmaul respirations very deep, gasping type of respiration usually associated with severe diabetic acidosis
Rales abnormal sound heard on auscultation of the chest, produced by passage of air through bronchi that contain secretion or exudate or that are constricted by spasm or a thickening of their walls
Pleural Rub friction rub caused by inflammation of the pleural space; noted on auscultation
Rhinorrhea thin, watery discharge from the nose
Rhonchi rattlings in the throat, produced by the passage of air through obstructed airways
Sneeze expelling air forcibly through the nose and mouth by spasmodic contraction of muscles of expiration due to irritation of nasal mucosa
Stridor harsh sound (usually noted during inhalation); high pitched and resembling the blowing of wind, due to the obstruction of air passages
Yawning Deep, prolonged breath that can be caused by a drop in oxygen levels
Pertussis acute upper respiratory infectious disease, caused by the bacterium Bordetello pertussis
Asthma paroxysmal dyspnea accompanied by wheezing; caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of their mucous membrane
Emphysema chronic pulmonary disease characterized by increase beyond the normal in the size of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchiole, either from dilation of the alveoli or from destruction of their walls
Influenza highly contagious viral infection of the respiratory tract transmitted by airborne droplet infection
Pneumothorax collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity
Tuberculosis infectious disease caused by the tubercle bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Anthracosis accumulation of carbon deposits in the lungs due to breathing smoke or coal dust
Asbestosis lung disease resulting from inhalation of asbestos particles, latency may be 20 years or more
Byssinosis lung disease resulting from inhalation of cotton, flax, and hemp
Brown lung disease byssinosis
Silicosis lung disease resulting from inhalation of silica (quartz) dust, may cause secondary emphysema
Hypertrophy Hypertrophy of the right ventricle of the heart (with or without failure) resulting from disorders of the lungs, pulmonary vessels, or chest wall
Pulmonary edema an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the lungs, either in the alveoli or the interstitial spaces
Pulmonary embolism obstruction of one or more pulmonary arteries by a thrombus dislodged from another location and carried through the venous system to the pulmonary vessels
Pneumonia inflammation of the lungs caused primarily by bacteria, viruses, and chemical irritants
Pleural Effusion accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, resulting in compression of the underlying portion of the lung, with resultant dyspnea
Lung Abscess localized collection of pus formed by the destruction of lung tissue and microorganisms by leukocytes that have migrated to the area to fight infection
Hyaline Membrane Disease severe impairment of respiration in a premature newborn, also known as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
Empyema pus in a body cavity, especially in the pleural cavity
Pleuritis inflammation of both the visceral and parietal pleura
Created by: MsKim6399