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IPC Test 4

Amorphous a non-crystalline solid having no orderly arrangement of molecules
Cleavage a clean break parallel to planes of weakness in a crystal
Crystal a solid form resulting from the arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules in definite geometric patterns
Fracture a break that does not follow a flat surface, but rather is rough and uneven
Hardness resistance to being scratched
Mineral a single chemical compound or element that is found in nature
Toughness the amount of kinetic energy that a material can absorb without breaking
Brittle a substance with little elasticity which fails (ruptures) quickly once a crack develops
Ceramic a hard, brittle, heat- and corrosion-resistant material made by subjecting a nonmetallic mineral mixture to intense heat
Composite a carbon fiber embedded in a polymer resin matrix
Ductile capable of being pulled into wires
Elastic Deformation reversible alteration of the form or dimensions of a solid body under stress
Hydrogen Bond a type of intermolecular bond that forms between different polar molecules or between polar parts of the same molecule
Malleable ability to be hammered into shapes
Plastic Deformation deformation that remains after the load causing it is removed; permanent deformation
Plastics man-made materials derived from carbon compounds, mostly oil and petroleum products
Polymer a long, chainlike molecule made up of repeating units joined end-to-end
Strain the quantity that characterizes how a solid is deformed due to a stress
Strength the resistance of a material to failure (rupture or breaking in two)
Stress the force required to deform an object
Tensile Strength ability to which a material can withstand a stretching stress without breaking
Thermoplastics plastics that have high elongations and can be recycled
Thermosets plastics that have low elongations and cannot be recycled
Atomic Core the nucleus of an atom plus its non-valence electrons
Electrical Conduction the transfer of electrical current through a solid (or liquid)
Insulators material that either does not conduct electricity at all or has a very low conductivity
Semiconductors substances that are intermediate in their ability to conduct electricity
Superconductors solids with abnormally high electrical conductivity
Diffusion the overall movement of suspended or dissolved particles resulting from the random movements of individual particles
Fluid any material that flows and offers little resistance to change in shape when under pressure
Fractional Distillation the separation of solution components (fractions) based on boiling points
Liquid a material that has a fixed volume but whose shape depends on the container
Liquid Crystal a material that shows some properties of solids and some properties of liquids
Miscible ability of certain liquids to dissolve in each other
Thermal Expansion the change in volume in relation to change in temperature
van der Waals forces weak intermolecular bonds that form between polar parts of neighboring particles
Viscosity a measure of the resistance of a liquid to flow
Fluid Pressure the force that fluids exert on the surfaces of objects
Force an effect that changes the motion (velocity or direction) of an object with mass
Hydraulic Lift a large and a small chamber connected by a tube, filled with fluid, and used to produce large forces
Weight a force equal to the mass of an object x acceleration of gravity
Buoyant Force the difference between the upward force acting on the lower surface and the downward force acting on the upper surface of a submerged object
Adhesion the attraction between unlike substances
Capillary Action the movement of liquids through the spaces of materials
Cohesion attraction of one particle in a material for another
Evaporation vaporization of a liquid below its boiling point; occurs mostly at the surface of the liquid
Surface Tension attraction between molecules at the surface of a liquid column
Toughness the amount of kinetic energy that a material can absorb without breaking; the energy required to crack a material
Created by: Muddee
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