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# TRIPLE Energy

### TRIPLE AQA Chapter 7 Energy Batteries and fuel cells

Describe the procedure to make a chemical cell Dip 2 different metals in a beaker of Sodium Chloride; connect the metals to a high resistance voltmeter
What is the relationship between the difference of reactivity between two metals and the voltage? The bigger the difference of reactivity, the higher the voltage
In a chemical cell, which metal gets reduced (gains electrons): the most reactive or the least reactive? Least reactive
In a chemical cell, which metal gets oxidised (loses electrons): the most reactive or the least reactive? Most reactive
In a chemical cell, Magnesium is the most reactive metal. Write the equation for the reaction on the Magnesium Mg will lose electrons: Mg --> Mg+2 + 2e-
In a chemical cell, Copper is the least reactive metal. Write the equation for the reaction on the Copper Copper (ions) will gain e-: Cu+2 + 2e- --> Cu
Why do batteries go flat? One of the chemical runs out
Is the following equation a reduction or an oxidation? Zn --> Zn+2 + 2e- Electrons are on the right of the arrow, it is a loss of e-, OILRIG, oxidation
Is the following equation a reduction or an oxidation? Ag+ + 1e- --> Ag Electrons are on the left of the arrow, it is a gain of e-, OILRIG, reduction
CHALLENGE: write the OVERALL equation for the reaction using the following two HALF-equations: Ag+ + e- --> Ag and Zn -->Zn+2 + 2e- 1) must have same number of electrons for both half-equations so 2Ag+ + 2e- --> 2Ag; 2) add the chemicals on left of the equation for both equations (2Ag+ + 2e- + Zn) 3) add chemicals on right (2Ag + Zn+2 + 2e-) 4) simplify 2Ag+ + Zn --> 2Ag + Zn+2
CHALLENGE: write the OVERALL equation for the reaction using the following two HALF-equations: Al+3 + 3e- --> Al and 2O2- -->O2 + 4e- 1) must have same number of electrons for both half-equations so 4Al+3 + 12e- --> 4Al and 6O2- --> 3O2 + 12e- ; 2) add the chemicals on left of the equation for both equations; add chemicals on right 3) simplify 4Al+3 + 6O2- --> 4 Al + 3O2
Why are some batteries rechargeable and some others (alkaline batteries) NOT rechargeable? Because the for some reactions, the overall equation is not reversible
How would you make a 6V battery using 1.5V chemical cells? Add the cells in series: that means connect the (+) terminal of one cell to the (-) cell of the next one along
In a chemical cell, which metal is the negative terminal: the most reactive or the least reactive? The most reactive
In a chemical cell, which metal is the positive terminal: the most reactive or the least reactive? The least reactive
What is the OVERALL equation for the reaction taking place in a Hydrogen fuel cell? 2H2 + O2 --> 2 H2O
What is the HALF-equation for the reaction for the Hydrogen gas taking place in a Hydrogen fuel cell? 2 H2 + 4 OH- --> 4 H2O + 4e-
What is the HALF-equation for the reaction for the Oxygen gas taking place in a Hydrogen fuel cell? O2 + 2 H2O + 4e- --> 4 OH-
What are the advantages of using a Hydrogen fuel cell? 1) No pollutant made, simply water; 2) do not need to be recharged; 3) can be a range of sizes for different uses
What are the disadvantages of using a Hydrogen fuel cell? 1) hydrogen is flammable 2) hydrogen must be stored under great pressure and/or at low temperature 3) hydrogen is produced using fossil fuels (ie it is not renewable)
When making a chemical cell using 2 different metals and a beaker of sodium chloride, what should you keep the same to make it a fair test? surface area of the metal sticks; volume and concentration of the sodium chloride solution, temperature (very much like the rate of reactions...)
Created by: ursulinechem2