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Chemistry Ch.3+4

TermDefinition
Most abundant element on Earth Oxygen
Most abundant element in the human body Oxygen
Democritus model Called smallest possible particle of matter an element
Aristole+Greeks 5 elements (earth, water, fire, air, eather)
Alchemists Thought elements could be changed into different elements
Law of constant composition Given compound always has same proportion of elements
Dalton’s atomic theory Elements are made of tiny particles -all atoms of an element are identical -atoms of 1 element differ from those of others -atoms combine in specific ways -atoms are indivisible in chemical processes
Thompson model -positive and negative charges floating around -discovered electrons(cathode ray tube) -plum pudding model
Marie Curiel -2 Nobel prizes -coined term “radiation” -discovered 2 elements
Bohr model -atom is mostly empty space -electrons orbit
James chadwick Discovered neutron
Electron Negative(-1 charge)
Neutron Neutral(no charge)
Proton Positive(+1 charge)
Atomic # Number of protons(usually equal to # of electrons)
Atomic mass # of protons and neutrons
Isotope Same element w/ different # of neutrons
Allotrope Same element or isotope w/ different formation
Dimitri Mendeleev Designed first periodic table
Mosely Developed first modern periodic table
Groups or families(on periodic table) Columns(up and down)
Periods(on periodic table) Rows(sideways)
Ion Atom that has gained or lost electrons
Positive ion Atom that has lost electron(metals)
Negative ion Atom that has gained electron(non-metal)
Oxidation # Combining ability of an element
Chemical bond Force that holds atoms together in a compound
Ionic bond Electrons are transferred creating opposite charges that attract
Chemical formula Indicates the elements in a compound and the ratio of those elements
Created by: 21bakkay