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Ch.6- Skeletal Sys

Skeletal System

QuestionAnswer
Hematopoiesis Blood Cell formation
RBC Red blood cell
WBC White blood cell
Collagen a protein that provides a soft framework
Calcium Phosphate a mineral that adds strength and hardens the framework
Cranium Brain
Vertebrae Spinal Cord
Calcium is needed for Heartbeat, muscle contraction, blood clotting
If blood calcium decreases Calcium is released from bones
If blood calcium increases Excess calcium is stored in the bones
Red Bone Marrow produces blood cells
With age, red bone marrow is largely replaced with yellow marrow
Bones have their own system of blood vessels and nerves
Adipose tissue fat tissue
Bones need calcium and phosphorous to become hard and strong
If the body suffers large amounts of blood loss it can covert yellow marrow into red marrow to make more blood cells
Compact Bone hard, dense layer; makes up outer layer of most bones and the main shaft of long bones
Spongy Bone lighter and less dense than compact bone; consists of small plates of bones
4 types of bones Long, short, flat, irregular
Long bones are longer than they are wider
Short bones are cubed shape
Flat bones are thin, flattened, and often curved
Irregular bones are primarily spongy
Diaphysis main shaft like portion of a long bone
Epiphysis located at the end of a long bone
Diaphysis consists of compact bone
Epiphysis consists of spongy bone covered by a thin layer of compact bone
Epiphyseal Line separates the epiphysis and diaphysis
Epiphyseal Line allows bones to grow lengthwise
Medullary Cavity Space inside the shaft of a long bone
Medullary Cavity in adults contains yellow bone marrow
Articular Cartilage covers the ends of long bones and joint surfaces
Articular Cartilage provides smooth surfaces for movements in the joint
Periosteum Tough, fibrous connective tissue that covers the surface of the long bone
Periosteum is needed for growth and repair
Periosteum is supplied with nerve fibers, blood and lymphatic vessels, and osteoblasts
Periosteum is the attachment point for ligaments and tendons
Ossificiation process of bone formation
Ossification begins before birth
Osteoblasts bone forming cells
Osteoclasts digests bone tissue
Osteocytes mature bone cells
Bone markings specific features of bones
Sulcus groove or depression in a bone
Concave areas help form joints and serve as points of attachment for msucle
Sinus opening or hollow space in a bone
Fossa hollow or shallow concave depression in a bone
Axial Skeleton Bones revolved around the vertical axis of the skeleton
Axial Skeleton provides support and protection for the brain, spinal cord, and the organs of the ventral body cavity
Axial Skeleton is a surface for the attachment for the muscles of the head and neck and directs respiratory movements
The axial skeleton consists of 80 bones
Cranium also known as the Skull
The cranium encloses and protects the brain
The skull consists of 22 bones
Cranial bones 8 bones
Facial Bones 14 bones
Cranial bones are attachment site for muscles of the head and neck
Facial bones provide cavities for the sense organs
Facial bones protect the entrances to the digestive and respiratory tracts
Maxilla upper jaw bone
Mandible lower jaw bone
The mandible is the only moveable facial bone
Hyoid bone moveable base for the tongue
The hyoid bone connected to the muscles of the jaw, larynx, and tongue
Auditory Ossicles consist of 2 malleus bones, 2 incus bones, and 2 stapes bones
The auditory ossicles of the middle ear transmit sounds from the air as vibrations to the fluid filled cochlea
Human skeleton consists of 206 bones
Functions of the skeleton system support, protection, movement, reservoir for storing minerals
Vertebral column consists of 26 vertebrae
Intervertebral Disc cushion of cartilage that lies between each vertebra so they can glide over each other; makes movement smooth and painless
Cervical Vertebrae vertebrae of the neck
Thoracic Vertebrae vertebrae of the chest
Lumbar Vertebrae vertebrae of the lower back
C1 Atlas
C2 Axis
T1-T12 thoracic vertebrae
C1-C7 cervical vertebrae
L1-L5 lumbar vertebrae
Sacrum singular, triangular-shaped bone; composed of 5 individual fused sacral bones
Coccyx tailbone; composed of 4 individual fused coccygeal bones
Appendicular Skeleton consists of 126 bones
Upper Extremities consist of 64 bones
Lower Extremities consist of 62 bones
Appendicular Skeleton forms during the embryonic process of bone formation
Thoracic Cage skeleton of the chest
The Thoracic Cage encloses and protects the heart and lungs; provides support for the shoulder girdles and upper limbs
Thoracic Cage serves as an attachment point for the diaphragm, muscles of the back, chest, neck, and shoulders
True Ribs Pairs 1-7 upper ribs
False Ribs Pairs 8-10, lower ribs
Floating Ribs Pairs 11-12
Ribs 1-7 attach to the sternum in the front and the vertebrae in the back
Ribs 8-10 attach to the vertebrae in the back but attach to cartilage of the 7th rib in the front
Ribs 11-12 attach to vertebrae in the back and completely free of attachment in front
Ilium Upper Hip bones
Clavicle collarbone
Scapula shoulder blade
Humerus Upper Arm bone
Radius Smaller lower arm bone; thumb side
Ulna Larger arm bone; pinky side
Carpals wrist bones
Metacarpals Bones of the hand
Phalanges Finger bones; 3 bones each finger; 2 bones in each thumb
Iliac Crest Upper curved-edge of Ilium
Ischium Lower hip bones; strongest of the pelvic bones
Symphysis Pubis Cartilaginous joint at connection of the two pubic bones
Acetabulum Formed by segments of the ilium, ischium, and pubis; connecting point for the femur and the hip
Femur thigh bone
Femur longest, strongest, heaviest bone in the body
Patella Kneecap
Tibia Inner lower, larger leg bone; shin bone
Fibula Calf bone. smaller lower leg bone
Tarsals Ankle bones
Calcaneus Heel Bone
Talus Foot Bone
Metatarsals Connected to phalanges of the foot
Phalanges Bones of the toes; 3 bones in each toe, except big toe- only 2 bones
-luxation displacement, dislocation
ortho- straight
Zygomatic Cheek bone
Sternum Breastbone
Closed fracture Break in the bone but no open wound in skin
Simple fracture is known as Closed fracture
Open Fracture Break in the bone as well as an open wound in the skin
Compound Fracture is known as Open Fracture
Complete Fracture Break extends through the entire thickness of the bone
Incomplete Fracture One side of bone is broken and one side of bone is bent; not broken
Greenstick Fracture is also known as Incomplete Fracture
Kyphosis Outward curvature of spine
Lordosis Inward curvature of spine
Scoliosis Sideward curvature of spine
Compression Fracture Bone surfaces being forced against each other
Impacted Fracture Direct force causes bone to break and forces broken end of smaller bone into broken end of larger bone
Comminuted Fracture When the break causes the bone to splinter
Colles Fracture Break occurs at lower end of the radius
Hairline Fracture Minor fracture in which the bone continues to be in perfect alignment; aka Stress Fracture
Pathological Fracture Bone is weakened by a preexisting disease; break in response to a force that would not cause a normal bone to break
Closed Reduction Procedure to set (reduce) a broken bone without surgery
Open Reduction Procedure where the fracture is exposed surgically
Created by: MsKim6399