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Module 5

hard test

Carcinogen causes cancer, handle carefully, avoid all contact, wear PPE
Corrosive eats away at living tissue and some materials, DO NOT breathe vapors, wear respirator
Explosive will explode under some conditions
Flammable or combustible Gives off vapors that can easily ignite
flash point temperature at which a substance will ignite. Keep these chemicals several feet away from heat.
incompatible reacts violently when combined with other particular substances.
irritant irritates the eyes, avoid contact with skin/eyes
Lachrymator has an irritating or burning effect on skin, eyes or respiratory tract. Exposure to tiny amounts can be hazardous.
Peroxide former may form peroxides when stored for long periods or when exposed to air. Many peroxides can be explosive, make sure you know how to handle the substance
Mutagen Causes alterations in your DNA. Do not breathe vapors and avoid contact with skin
Poison or toxic hazardous when inhaled, swallowed or in contact with skin. May lead to death. Do not breathe vapors, dust or mist.
Reactive will burn, react, or give off noxious fumes when in contact with other substances.
Stench has a foul odor
Teratogen causes physical defects in a developing fetus or embryo
Parts per million/billion indicates how much chemical exposure is allowed
If the flash point of a substance is less than 100 degrees celcius then it is considered flammable
MSDS material safety data sheet
NFPA diamond colors: red: flammability Blue: Health hazard Yellow: Instability White: special hazard
The higher the NFPA number, the more hazardous the chemical
C Carbon
H Hydrogen
O Oxygen
N Nitrogen
Ca Calcium
Cl Chlorine
Fe Iron
Mg Magnesium
K Potassium
P Phosphorous
S Sulfur
Na Sodium
All electrons want to add up to the number 8
True or False the MSDS has info on what PPE to wear when handling a substance True
NaOH Sodium Hydroxide
A substance composed of 2 or more different elements compound
A group of atoms bound together molecule
OH Hydroxide ion
Add acid to water do what you oughter
Water is a good absorber of heat
N expresses the concentration of an acid or base
Anything above 1N should be treated with respect
H2O2 Hydrogen peroxide
NaHCO3 Baking soda
NaCl Salt
H2S Hydrogen sulfide
H2SO4 Sulfuric acid
NH3 Ammonia
OH means it is a base (hydroxide)
Elements join together to form compounds
An electrically charged particle is an ion
Basic particles of elements atom
basic particles of compounds molecule
Ph The ability of something to attract hydrogen atoms
Ph scale 0-6 more acidic 7 neutral 8-14 base/alkaline
Household ammonia alkaline
Vinegar acid
Organic compounds always contain carbon
reaction rate measure of the amount of reactants that convert into products in a set time period
Concentration the number of molecules in a given volume
Increasing the concentration of reactant molecules speeds up the reaction rate
Decreasing the concentration of reactant molecules slows the reaction rate
The primary components of living cells Organic compounds
Contained stored energy. Used as fuel
Examples of hydrocarbons Methane, propane, benzene, acetylene
Common oxygen containing organic compounds Ketones (acetone-nail polish remover Organic acids-citric acid (weak), acetic acid, esters (artificial flavors), ethers (anasthetic)
Polymers contain A string of repeating molecules
Polymer A long chain of repeating molecular units
Highly flammable organic compounds Hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones, ethers
Common oxidizing agents Oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, perchloric acid, sodium pergamanate
If you get a Strong base on your skin, it feels slippery because It is dissolving the outermost layer of skin
Caustic refers to Sodium or potassium hydroxide
Safety hazards associated with acids Burns, fumes, reactive
One safety hazard associated with bases Reactive, corrosive, fumes
To raise the ph of a neutral solution Adjust with a base
Organic compounds must contain Carbon
Many hydrocarbons are used as Fuel
Two hazards of organic compounds Flammability and toxicity
The worst way to put out an organic chemical fire Douse with water
2 common oxidizing agents Oxygen, hydrogen peroxide
Al salts contain Metal atoms
Oxidizing agents should be considered potentially explosive and highly reactive substances True
A strong base that contains irritating fumes Ammonia
Conductivity Measures the concentration of atoms
Water that is not highly purified usually has More ions in it, is more conductive than purified or deionized ater
Salt dissolves into ions so Solutions with higher salt concentrations are more conductive
Conductivity The amount of electrical current thatcan pass through a solution.
Refraction The bending of light waves
Solvent The material with the HIGHER amount
Solute Is always less than the solvent
Soluabilty A substance's ability todissolve in another substance
Factors that affect soluability Temperature, pressure, ph, mixing
Endothermic reaction Requires heat to keep reaction
Exothermic reaction Produce heat and release it into the environment
Reaction rate Measure in the amount ofvreactants that converts into products in a set time period
Concentration The number of molecules in a given volume
Separation methods in industry Evaporation, distillation, precipitation, crystallization, filtration, centrifugation, liquid extraction, chromatography
Why separate chemicals? Purification
Evaporation Process of changing a liquid to a gas through heat treesap to syrup
Distillation Used to separate liquids with 2 diggerent boiling points from a mixture
Precipitation The process that separatwsca solid solute from a solution by changing the solute to a precipitate. Clumping of milk in vinegar
Filtration Uses a mechanical device to physically separate solid particles from a solution
Crystallization Process of separating a solute a liquid solution by increasing the concentration of the solute until the solvent cannot absorb any more
Centrifugation Uses centrifugal force to separate different components in a mixture
Liquid extraction The process of adding a different solvent to a solution--a solventvthat will pull a particular solute from the solution
Chromatography A process that separates the solute from the solution by pumping the soulution through a column with resin beads. The solute leaves the solution because it is attracted to the resin beads
An ion Can hold a positive or negative charge
Acids and bases are corrosive they can. Cause------burns Chemical
A substance with a ph of 5 is Acidic
Ph measures the Number of H plus ions that are present
Oxidizing agents are Potentially explosive
Type of chemical reaction that can lead to an explosion Exothermic
To slow down a reaction rate Decrease the pressure on the reactants
Absorption, reaction andcconductivity are all used to monitor Concentration of a solute in a solution
Conductivity measures thevconcentration of Ionic compounds
Substances produced from a chemical reaction are called Products
Created by: millatorch