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Logical Fallacies

AP Lang

Inductive fallacy When an arguer leaps to a conclusion on the basis of insufficient or wrong evidence
Deductive fallacy When an arguer fails to follow logic of a series of statements
Hasty generalization Arguer draws conclusions based on insufficient evidence, usually leading to a prejudice or superstition
Faulty use of authority Cites an authority to back up claim when either the authority is not really an authority or there is a significant difference of opinion among multiple authorities on the subject and the arguer fails to mention it
Post hoc, ergo propter hoc When an arguer attempts to claim that an independent event happened because of another event when it really didn't have anything to do with it
Begging the question Assumes truth of conclusion instead of supporting it
Scare tactic Attempts to create support by increasing fear towards alternative
Ad hominem Topic avoided and instead arguer attacks character/motive/attributes of opposing arguer
Red herring Misleads or distracts from relevant issue
False dilemma Something claimed to be an "either, or" situation when there is another option
Ad populum Bandwagon; Peer pressure
Appeal to force Persuade by threats
Strawman Someone argues that a person holds a view that is actually not what the other person is claiming and strikes down that idea
Slippery slope Suggests taking a minor action will lead to major and sometimes ludicrous consequences
Appeals to pity Tries to win support by exploiting opponents feelings of pity or guilt
Appeal to tradition Something is accepted as true or better because it is "the way it's always been"
Guilt by association Argument attacks a person because of the similarity between views of someone making an argument and opponents own argument
Created by: Allofakind



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