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Bio 11 vocab

TermDefinition
Cell Theory a theory in biology that includes one or both of the statements that the cell is the fundamental structural and functional unit of living matter and that the organism is composed of autonomous cells with its properties being the sum of those of its cells.
Chloroplast (in green plant cells) a plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.
Chromatin the material of which the chromosomes of organisms other than bacteria (i.e., eukaryotes) are composed. It consists of protein, RNA, and DNA.
Chromosome a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
Cilia identical in structure to flagella, that line the surfaces of certain cells and beat in rhythmic waves, providing locomotion to ciliate protozoans and moving liquids along internal epithelial tissue in animals.
Cristae each of the partial partitions in a mitochondrion formed by infolding of the inner membrane.
Cytoplasm the material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus.
Eukaryotic Cell Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike prokaryotes. Eukaryotes belong to the domain Eukaryota or Eukarya.
Granum one of the structural units of a chloroplast in vascular plants, consisting of layers of thylakoids.
Matrix an environment or material in which something develops; a surrounding medium or structure.
Cell Cycle Cell cycle, the ordered sequence of events that occur in a cell in preparation for cell division. The cell cycle is a four-stage process in which the cell increases in size
Apoptosis the death of cells that occurs as a normal and controlled part of an organism's growth or development.
Crossing Over the exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes, resulting in a mixture of parental characteristics in offspring.
Diploid (of a cell or nucleus) containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.
Haploid (of a cell or nucleus) having a single set of unpaired chromosomes.
Gamete a mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.
Mitosis a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.
Meiosis a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
Prokaryotic Cell a microscopic single-celled organism that has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles. Prokaryotes include the bacteria and cyanobacteria.
Stroma the supportive tissue of an epithelial organ, tumor, gonad, etc., consisting of connective tissues and blood vessels.
Thylakoid each of a number of flattened sacs inside a chloroplast, bounded by pigmented membranes on which the light reactions of photosynthesis take place, and arranged in stacks or grana.
Aerobic relating to, involving, or requiring free oxygen.
Anabolism the synthesis of complex molecules in living organisms from simpler ones together with the storage of energy; constructive metabolism.
Catabolism the breakdown of complex molecules in living organisms to form simpler ones, together with the release of energy; destructive metabolism.
Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Citric Acid Cycle is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into adenosine triphosphate and carbon dioxide.
Fermentation the chemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeasts, or other microorganisms, typically involving effervescence and the giving off of heat.
Glycolysis the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid.
Calvin Cycle is the set of chemical reactions that take place in chloroplasts during photosynthesis. The cycle is light-independent because it takes place after the energy has been captured from sunlight.
Chlorophyll a green pigment, present in all green plants and in cyanobacteria, responsible for the absorption of light to provide energy for photosynthesis. Its molecule contains a magnesium atom held in a porphyrin ring.
Light Reaction the reaction that occurs as the first phase of photosynthesis, in which energy in the form of light is absorbed and converted to chemical energy in the form of ATP.
Photosynthesis the process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water. Photosynthesis in plants generally involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a byproduct.
cell theory
Created by: Jruan