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Chapter One

Study Guide for the National Social Work Exam DSM-5

TermDefinition
Milestones of Development: 1-3 months Infant gains the ability to raise his/her chin from the ground and can turn his/her head from side to side and play with hands and fingers
Milestones of Development: 4-6 months Baby rolls over 5 months: the baby reaches and grass while sitting on someone's lap 6 months: the baby sits alone and may stand with support First teeth appear
Milestones of Development: 7-9 months Coordination improves. Creeping a crawling usually begins.
Milestones of Development: 10-12 months Child pulls himself/herself to standing position with furniture and walks with help.
Milestones of Development: 15 months Baby stands alone and then gains ability to walk. He/she throws things.
Milestones of Development: 18 months Toddler can walk sideways and backwards.
Milestones of Development: 2 years Child walks with a steady gait, jumps, runs in a controlled way and can climb stars with help.
Milestones of Development: 3 years Typically toilet trained, child dresses and undresses with simple clothing and can scribble.
Milestones of Development: 4 years Child prints first name and has stable preference for right or left hand.
Milestones of Development: 5 years Youngster coordinates movement to music.
Milestones of Development: Middle Childhood Gender preferences appear. Girls: more physically mature, superior in skills requiring flexibility, agility, and balance. Boys: stronger, perform better with gross motor movement
Maturation The development of a clear identity and power of choice; it includes the ability to communicate with others. Coping skills increase with self-esteem.
Components of Self-Esteem Security, belonging, competence, directions, and selfhood.
Worldview (two types) Threat and reward: rigid rules, divides people in rule-makers and rule-followers Seed: each person has an innate potential for growth
Family Reconstruction an exercise in which roles in significant familial historical events are examined to determine what implicit premises guide perceptions and interactions. It includes an analysis of how family members handle differences.
Self-manifestation (congruence) analysis seeks to determine what models have impacted a person from early life onward. Experience and ability to make choices are expanded.
Sculpting (group posture) technique a parts party builds awareness and exercises both mind and body.
Stages of Language Development: 6-8 weeks Babbling
Stages of Language Development: 10-12 weeks cooing
Stages of Language Development: 9 months Echolalia: child forms quasi-sentences without real meaning
Stages of Language Development: 1-2 years Holophrastic speech: single words are used to express whole sentences with the first words generally being nominals
Stages of Language Development: 18-24 months Telegraphic speech: pre-sentences such as "me go" and "more juice" are formed and vocabulary increases
Stages of Language Development: 2.5 - 5 years Grammatically correct sentences: can understand the concept of a lie
Stages of Language Development: 6-7 years Metalinguistic awareness: language is viewed as a communication tool, views self as a user of language
Gardner's multiple intelligences linguistic, musical, spatial, logical/mathematical, kinesthetic (movement), interpersonal, intrapersonal (understanding yourself), and naturalist.
Secure Attachment infant is mildly upset by the mother's absence and actively seeks contact with her when she returns. Mothers are emotionally sensitive and responsive.
Insecure (Anxious/Ambivalent) Attachment The infant becomes very disturbed when left along with a stranger but is ambivalent to the mother's return and may resist her attempts at physical contact. Mothers are moody and inconsistent.
Insecure (Anxious/Avoidant) Attachment The child shows little distress when the mother leaves and ignores her when she returns. Mothers are impatient and unresponsive or provide their children with too much stimulation.
Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment signs of fearing their caretakers, confused facial expressions ad a variety of other behaviors. 80% of infants who have been mistreated exhibit this pattern. Bowlby described this as pulling away with anger while seeking to be close.
Albert Bandura's Social Learning Theory Behavior occurs as a result of the interplay between cognitive ad environmental factors. People learn by observing others, intentionally or accidentally, in a process known as modeling.
Bandura's Modeling Therapy Based on the idea that a person suffering fro a psychological disorder can correct their problems by observing someone else dealing with similar issues
Martin Seligman learned helplessness experiment with dogs
Margaret Mahler's Stages of Development Autistic (newborn to 1 month) Symbiosis (fusion with mother) Separation-Individuation (differentiation, practicing motor skills, rapproachment, constancy of self and object)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Self-actualization self-esteem belonging safety physiological
Alfred Adler Importance of Birth Order
Stages of Cognitive Development - Jean Piaget Sensorimotor Stage (birth to 2 years) Knowledge gained through active interaction with the environment. Beginning awareness of cause and effect relationships. Learning objects exist even when not in view. Crude imitation of actions of others.
Stages of Cognitive Development - Jean Piaget Pre-operational Stage (2 to 6 years) Initially very egocentric. Development of language and mental representations. Classification of objects by a single characteristic at a time.
Stages of Cognitive Development - Jean Piaget Concrete Operations Stage (6 to 12 years) Understanding of conservation of volume, length, etc. Organization of objects into ordered categories. Comprehension of rational terms (i.e. bigger than, above). Beginning use of simple logic.
Stages of Cognitive Development - Jean Piaget Formal Operations Stage (over 12 years) Thinking becomes abstract and symbolic. Development of reasoning skills and a sense of hypothetical concept. Stages: object permanence, egocentrism, conservation, abstract thinking, and concentration
Freud's Psychosexual Stages of Development Oral (birth to age 2) greedy, mistrusting, unable to for intimate relationships. pleasure stimulus via mouth (i.e. sucking, chewing, and spitting)
Freud's Psychosexual Stages of Development Anal (2 to 3) Anal retentive, aggressive. The infant phases from oral pleasures to the elimination independence stage. Toilet training and expelling feces.
Freud's Psychosexual Stages of Development Phallic (3 to 6) Identity disturbance (oedipus/electra complex). aware of sexual identification, discovers pleasure when genitals are stimulated. Becomes aware in differences between boys and girls.
Oedipus Complex (castration anxiety) boys feelings sexually attracted to their mother and feeling competitive with father for her attentions
Electra Complex (penis envy) girls feeling sexually attracted to their fathers and jealous of their father's attentions for their mother.
Freud's Psychosexual Stages of Development Latency (6 to puberty) socialization stage. Sexual desires are overshadowed by the need to adapt to their environment. Drawn to authority figures, avoiding relationships with opposite sex, furthering development of superego.
Freud's Psychosexual Stages of Development Genital (puberty and older) interpersonal relations, freedom to love/work. This stage is dominated by hormones and puberty.
Erikson's Stages of Maturation Trust vs. Mistrust (birth to 18 months) a basic sense of safety (adequate resolution) vs. insecurity and anxiety (inadequate resolution)
Erikson's Stages of Maturation Autonomy vs. Shame/Self Doubt (18 months to 3 years) The unfolding of a self-view as capable of bodily control and the ability to make things happen (adequate resolution) vs. the feeling of inability to control events (inadequate resolution)
Erikson's Stages of Maturation Initiative vs. Guilt (3 to 6) Confidence as an initiator and creator (adequate resolution) vs. lack of self-worth (inadequate resolution)
Erikson's Stages of Maturation Industry vs. Inferiority (6 to 12) Adequacy in basic social and intellectual skills (adequate resolution) vs. feelings of failure and lack of self-confidence (inadequate resolution)
Erikson's Stages of Maturation Identity vs. Role Confusion (12 to 20) A comfortable sense of self as a person (adequate resolution) vs. a fragmented, shifting or unclear sense of self (inadequate resolution)
Erikson's Stages of Maturation Intimacy vs. Isolation (20 to 40) Development of the capacity for closeness and commitment to another (adequate resolution) vs. feelings of aloneness and separation or denial of need for closeness (inadequate resolution)
Erikson's Stages of Maturation Generativity vs. Stagnation (40 to 65) Focused concerned beyond oneself to family, society, and future generations (adequate resolution) vs. self-indulgent concerns and a lack of orientation toward future (inadequate resolution)
Erikson's Stages of Maturation Ego Intergrity vs. Despair (65 on) A sense of wholeness and basic satisfaction with life (adequate resolution) vs. feelings of futility and disappointment (inadequate resolution)
Stages of Moral Development - Lawrence Kohlberg Pre-conventional level Stage 1: Punishment and obedience orientation (physical consequences determine what is good or bad) Stage 2: Instrumental relativist orientation (that which satisfies personal needs is good)
Stages of Moral Development - Lawrence Kohlberg Conventional Stage Stage 3: Interpersonal concordance (good boy/nice girl) [what pleases or helps others is good] Stage 4: law and order orientation (maintain social order, devotion to duty is good)
Stages of Moral Development - Lawrence Kohlberg Post-Conventional level Stage 5: social law contract (values agreed upon by society determine what is right) Stage 6: Universal ethical principle orientation (what is right is a matter of conscience in accord with universal principles, moral level assessed using Heinz Story
Three Stages of Gender Development Gender Labeling The child has reached a point where he/she can recognize boy-ness or girl-ness in self and others, but does not understand it to be static over time.
Three Stages of Gender Development Gender Stability The child now understands that his/her gender is stable and that he/she will grow up to be a daddy or mommy. The static aspect of gender is that gender will not change with time no matter what appearance or activity choices are made.
Three Stages of Gender Development Gender Constancy The child now has a full understanding of the unchanging nature of gender over time and across situations.
Carol Gilligan - Ethics of Care Level one is the orientation to personal survival Oriented toward a woman's individual self-survival. The well-being of others, regardless of need, is considered of little priority. Rather, importance is placed on what is best, most practical and most logical for her.
Carol Gilligan - Ethics of Care Transition one links personal selfishness to responsibility toward others Moves beyond the self. A woman comes to realize she has responsibilities not only for herself, but also for others which includes responsibility for the unborn. Choices impact people beyond the self.
Carol Gilligan - Ethics of Care Level two encompasses goodness as self-sacrifice considering needs of others over one's own needs. Good acts are defined as those that are done in sacrifice for the benefit of others. Largely defined by or dependent upon what others believe about them. Conflict between taking responsibility for self and
Carol Gilligan - Ethics of Care Transition two is the shift from goodness to reality increased levels of objectivity. Truth of personhood emerges. Moves away from dependency upon others and draws guidance from decisions and actions. Takes account of all concerned, including self, in making decisions. balances well-being.
Carol Gilligan - Ethics of Care Level three is the morality of nonviolent responsibility includes self and others. thinks of repercussions of actions. moves passed what others think. accepts responsibility for decisions. equality to others. minimizes hurt with full responsibility and acceptance.
Stages of Ego Development - Jane Loevinger Pre-social/symbiotic lack of recognition of difference between self and nonself mother becomes different from environment
Stages of Ego Development - Jane Loevinger Impulsive difference between self and mother implosive, exploitive and dependent fixation with sexual and aggressive drives
Stages of Ego Development - Jane Loevinger Opportunistic child tries to manipulate and control others follows rules and morality when it is conveniently advantageous to them
Stages of Ego Development - Jane Loevinger Conformist child develops trust becomes very self-conscious of their appearance, how others see them and their personal possessions rules are somewhat internalized
Stages of Ego Development - Jane Loevinger Conscientious child internalizes morality regulated by ethical imperatives disobedience results in feelings of guilt relationships with others are intense and accountable internal feelings and success preoccupy their thoughts
Stages of Ego Development - Jane Loevinger Autonomous constant thoughts about finding their own self-identity and self-fulfillment maintaining independence in relationships learns to deal with and accept personal conflicts, differences with others and controlling impulses
Stages of Ego Development - Jane Loevinger Integrated grandiose or unattainable ideas from childhood are replaced appreciate individuality in personal relationships reconciliation of conflicts constant thoughts of attaining an integrated identity
Dualism seeing things in terms of black and white
mutliplicity concerns there are multiple perspectives
relativism abstract thinking leading to a rejection of easy absolutes
commitment taking personal responsibility for dealing with the right/wrong dichotomy
dichotomy a division or contrast between two things that are represented as being opposite or entirely different
Havighurst's Six Stages of Developmental Tasks Infancy and early childhood (0-6), Middle Childhood (6-12), Adolescence (12-18), Early Adulthood (18-30), Middle Age (30-60), Later Maturity (Past Age 60)
Four Stages of Adulthood Early Adulthood (18-30) Middle Adulthood (30-60) Later Adulthood (60-75) Very Old Age (Past 75)
David Levinson's Three Adult Transitions Early Adulthood Transition (emerges between 17-22) Age Thirty Transition (between 28-30) Mid-Life Transition (transpires between 40-45)
Atkinson, Morten, and Sue's 5 Stages of Identity Development of Racial Minorities Stage 1 - Conformity, Stage 2 - Dissonance, Stage 3 - Resistance and Immersion, Stage 4 - Introspection, Stage 5 - Synergistic
Donald Super's Developmentally Different Life Stages Growth From birth to 14, includes fantasy (4 to 10), interest (11 to 12), and capacity (13 to 14). Primary tasks are creating a self-concept and developing a basic understanding of the world of work.
Donald Super's Developmentally Different Life Stages Exploration Lasting from 15 to 24, includes the tentative phase (15 to 17). Main concerns are identifying and working toward a vocational preference.
Donald Super's Developmentally Different Life Stages Establishment Ages 24 to 44, includes stabilization (25-30) and advancement (30-44). Firming up vocational preference and advancing in the work are primary issues.
Donald Super's Developmentally Different Life Stages Maintenance Ages 44 to 64, maintaining gains and status becomes the important issue.
Donald Super's Developmentally Different Life Stages Decline 64+, includes deceleration (64 to 70) and retirement (70 onward). The focus is easing out of work and moving into retirement.
Authoritarian Parents Demanding conduct that meets absolute standards, stressing obedience and using hard punishments to ensure compliance, exhibit a high degree of control and little warmth. Children are irritable, aggressive, and dependent.
Authoritative Parents Displaying rational control, warmth and responsiveness and promoting independence, set clear rules and high standards, meanwhile explaining rationales for decisions and encouraging discussion with children. Children are assertive, self-confident, socially
Indulgent-Permissive Parents Parents are warm and caring but provide little control, make few demands, and are non-punitive. Children are impulsive, self-centered, easily frustrated, and low in achievement and independence.
Indulgent-Uninvolved Parents Displaying low levels of warmth and control, parents minimize the time and effort expended upon their children. Children have low levels of self-esteems and are often impulsive, moody, aggressive, delinquent, and rebellious.
Identity Diffussion The adolescent has not yet experienced an identity crisis, explored alternatives or committed to an identity
Identity Foreclosure When an adolescent has not experienced a crisis but has adopted an identity (occupation, ideology) imposed by others.
Identity Moratorium A period marked by confusion, discontent and rebellion. This occurs when an adolescent experiences an identity crisis and is actively exploring alternative identities.
Identity Achieved The identity crisis has been resolved by evaluation of alternatives and commitment to an identity.
Eco-systemic Theory Referred to as Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory, puts forth belief that human development is reflective of (5) environmental systems.
Micro-system Setting where the person lives
Meso-system The relationship between micro-systems or link between contexts
Exo-system Involves connections between the person's immediate context and someone in a setting where the person does not have an active role
Macro-system The context of the person's culture where they live
Chrono-system Involves the pattern of environmental transitions and events over the individual's life
Halo Effect bias, or outside influence, which occurs when one characteristic of a person, or one factor in a test situation, effects or sways tester's evaluation of subject's other traits. Evaluator forms impression of person observed, unconciously influences ratings
Hawthorne Effect The effect of an experiment happens the way it was expected to happen but not for the reason that was expected. When the tester or test environment sways the response of the test subject away from the variable that is the focus of the experiment.
Rosenthal Effect (The Pygmalion Effect) Students internalize the expectations of their superiors. High expectations lead to improved performance.
The nine key categories of symptoms emotional concern, compulsive actions, impulsive actions, marked hyperactivity, learning problems, neuromuscular involvement, cognitive and perceptual disturbances, physical complaints, and sleep problems
Impulsive actions abusive behavior, disruptive behavior, excessive talking, poor self-control
Marked hyperactivity constant motion, inability to sit still, inappropriate wiggling of legs or hands, running instead of walking
Learning problems distraction, failure to complete problems, impatience, inability to follow directions, inability to listen to whole story, short attention span
Neuromuscular involvement accident-prone, difficult with playground activities or sports, difficulty writing or drawing, dyslexia/reading problems, eye muscle disorder, poor muscle coordintion
Cognitive and perceptual disturbances auditory memory deficits, difficulties in reasoning, difficulties in comprehension and short term memory, disturbance in spatial orientation. "I'm trapped", "people are looking at me", "I can't do it".
Physical complaints dry mouth, headaches, bed-wetting, ear infections, muscle tension
Sleep problems difficulty falling asleep, nightmares of bad dreams, resistance to going to bed, and restlessness/erratic sleep
Neurodevelopmental disorders intellectual diability, global developmental delay, language disorder, autism spectrum disorder, speech sound disorder, ADHD, specific learning disorder, tourette's disorder, tic disorders
Schiophrenia Spectrum Disorder Schizotypal disorder, delusional disorder, brief psychotic disorder, schizophreniform disorder, catatonia, schizoaffective disorder
Created by: kelseycrago