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Aspirin

TermDefinition
Trade Name acetylsalicylic acid
Classification Antipyretics (fever reducer), nonopioid analgesics (inability to feel pain)
Indication Rheumatoid arthritis (chronic inflammatory disorder affecting joints like hands and feet), Osteoarthritis (wear and tear on protective cartilage), Mild to moderate pain, Fever,
Prophylaxis (Indication) Action taken to prevent disease of transient ischemic attacks ( ministroke) and MI (heart attack)
Action Produce analgesia and reduce inflammation and fever by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins. Decreases platelet aggregation (formation of cluster) – blood thinner
Therapeutic Effect Analgesia Reduction of inflammation. Reduction of fever. Decreased incidence of transient ischemic attacks and MI.
Side/Adverse Effect EENT: Tinnitus (ringing in the ears) GI: Dyspepsia (indigestion) Epigastric distress (pain in the upper abdomen) Nausea Adverse effects on fetus and mother during pregnancy (3rd trimester), not safe during lactation
Toxic Effect GI: GI Bleeding Misc.: Anaphylaxis (Acute allergic reaction to an antigen due to hypersensitivity) Laryngeal Edema (Life threatening – acute swelling of laryngeal mucosa)
Assessment Pts who have asthma, allergies, and nasal polyps or who are at an increased risk for developing hypersensitivity reactions; Pain: Assess pain and limitation of movement; note type, location, and intensity before and at the peak after administration;
Assessment Assess fever and note associated signs (diaphoresis, tachycardia, malaise, chills).
Overdose antidote N/A
Implementation • Use lowest effective dose for shortest period of time. • PO: Administer after meals or with food or an antacid to minimize gastric irritation. Food slows but does not alter the total amount absorbed.
Implementation Do not crush or chew enteric-coated tablets. Do not take antacids within 1–2 hr of enteric-coated tablets. Chewable tablets may be chewed, dissolved in liquid, or swallowed whole.
Implementation Some extended-release tablets may be broken or crumbled but must not be ground up.
Pt/Family Teaching • Instruct patient to take salicylates with a full glass of water and to remain in an upright position for 15–30 min after administration.
Pt/Family Teaching o Advise patient to report tinnitus; unusual bleeding of gums; bruising; black, tarry stools; or fever lasting longer than 3 days.
Pt/Family Teaching o Caution patient to avoid concurrent use of alcohol with this medication to minimize possible gastric irritation; 3 or more glasses of alcohol per day may increase risk of GI bleeding.
Pt/Family Teaching o Teach patients on a sodium-restricted diet to avoid effervescent tablets or buffered-aspirin preparations. Tablets with an acetic (vinegar-like) odor should be discarded.
Pt/Family Teaching o Advise patients on long-term therapy to inform health care professional of medication regimen before surgery. Aspirin may need to be withheld for 1 wk before surgery.
Pt/Family Teaching • Transient Ischemic Attacks or MI: Advise patients receiving aspirin prophylactically to take only prescribed dose. Increasing dose has not been found to provide additional benefits.
Daily dosage For Pain/Fever: 325-1000mg q4-6h not to exceed 4g/day) For Inflammation: 2.4g/day initially; increase to maintenance dose of 3.6-5.4g/day in divided doses
Daily dosage For prevention of transient ischemic attacks: 50-325mg once daily For prevention of MI/Antiplatelet: 80-325mg once daily
Created by: saramx1005