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Physics Unit 5

Properties of Matter

TermDefinition
atom the smallest particle of an element that has all of the element's chemical properties
Brownian motion the haphazard movement of tiny particles suspended in a gas or liquid that results from their bombardment by the fast-moving atoms or molecules of the gas or liquid
electron a negatively charged particle that whizzes about within an atom
atomic nucleus the core of an atom, consisting of two basic subatomic particles- protons & neutrons
neutron an electrically neutral particle in the nucleus of an atom
proton a positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom
element a pure substance that consists of only one kind of atom
atomic number designates the identity of an element; the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
periodic table of elements a chart that lists the elements in horizontal rows by their atomic number & in vertical columns by their similar electron arrangements & chemical properties
ion an electrically charged atom; an atom with an excess or deficiency of electrons
isotopes atoms of the same element that contain different numbers of neutrons
atomic mass unit (amu) the standard unit of atomic mass, which is equal to 1/12 the mass of the most common atom carbon
compound a material in which atoms of different elements are chemically bonded to one another
mixture a substance whose components are mixed together without combining chemically
molecule two or more atoms that bond together by a sharing of electrons
antimatter a "complementary" form of matter composed of atoms that have negative nuclei & positive electrons
dark matter unseen & unidentified matter that is evidenced by its gravitational pull on stars & galaxies
atomic bonding the linking together of atoms to form larger structures, including solids
density the mass of a substance per unit volume
elasticity the property of a material by which it changes shape when a deforming force acts on it & returns to its original shape when the force is removed
Hooke's Law the amount of stretch or compression of an elastic material is directly proportional to the applied force
scaling the study of how size affects the relationships among weight, strength, & surface area
pressure the ratio of force to the area over which that force is distributed
buoyant force the net upward force that a fluid exerts on an immersed object
Archimedes' Principle an immersed body is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces
principle of flotation a floating object displaces a weight of fluid equal to its own weight
Pascal's Principle the pressure applied to a motionless fluid confined in a container is transmitted undiminished throughout the fluid
surface tension the tendency of the surface of a liquid to contract in area & thus to behave like a stretched elastic membrane
capillarity the rise of a liquid in a fine, hollow tube or narrow space
atmospheric pressure the pressure exerted against bodies immersed in the atmosphere; a result of the weight of air pressing down from above
barometer a device that measures atmospheric pressure
Boyle's Law the product of pressure & volume is a constant for a given mass of confined gas, as long as the temperature remains unchanged; P1V1=P2V2
Archimedes' Principle for air an object in the air is buoyed up with a force equal to the weight of the displaced air
Bernoulli's Principle where the speed of a fluid increases, the internal pressure in the fluid decreases
plasma an electrified gas that contains ions & free electrons
Created by: vahajuddin