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# Physics: Units 1-4

TermDefinition
Physics A branch of science that studies the physical world
Mechanics A branch of physics that deals with the motion of material objects
Thermodynamics A branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature in relation to energy and work
Vibrations/Waves A branch of physics relating to elastic and/or wave movement
Optics A branch of physics involving the behavior and properties of light
Electromagnetism A branch of physics relating to magnetism and electric currents
Relativity the dependence of physical actions on the relative motion of the observer and of observed objects
Quantum Mechanics the branch of mechanics that deals with the motion and interaction of subatomic particles
Scientific Method a method of procedure consisting of: observation, measurement, experiment, as well as the formulation, testing, and modification of a hypothesis
Model an evidence based representation of something that is either to difficult of impossible to display directly
System a portion of the physical universe chosen for observation
Hypothesis an idea of explanation that is tested through study and experimentation
Controlled Experiment an experiment where only one variable is changed at a time in order to isolate the results
Measurement the assignment of a number to a property of an object that is being observed
Standard a level of quantity that is desirable for measurement
SI System units of a basic measure set that all other measurements are based off of
Dimensional Consistancy an equation that when broken down to SI units is equal
Accuracy the condition or quality deemed to be correct and true
Precision the condition of being exact
Significant Figures digits in a number that are certain and contain meaning
Derived Unit derived quantities that are obtained by the base SI units
Curve of Best-Fit a line drawn in with a series of points that most closely represents the pattern of the points
Dimensional Analysis a method for comparing the dimensions of different physical qualities
Order-of-Magnitude Estimations an exponential change in the value or quantity of a unit
Frame of Reference a basis that is used for observation and description of physical phenomenon
Distance a scalar quantity of how much ground the object has covered
Displacement a vector quantity that is the how far out of place an object is, along with direction
Speed a scalar quantity that is the rate at which an object covers distance
Velocity a vector quantity that is the rate at which an object covers distance, but includes the direction
Average Velocity the displacement of an object divided by the time at which it takes the object to be displaced
Instantaneous Velocity the velocity of an object in motion at a specific point in time
Initial Velocity the velocity of an object before acceleration
Final Velocity the velocity of an object after acceleration
Acceleration the rate of change in the velocity of an object over a given amount of time
Negative Acceleration an object moving in a negative direction with a negative velocity
Positive Acceleration when an object is moving in a positive direction with a positive velocity
Free-fall a body with only the force of gravity acting on it
Kinematics a branch of mechanics that considers objects without looking at their masses or the forces acting on them
Scalar quantities described by a number
Vector quantities described by a number and direction
Resultant a combination of two or more single vectors
Pythagorean Theorem a theorem saying that the square of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the squares of the legs added together
x-component of a vector a horizontal component in a right triangle
y-component of a vector a vertical component of a right triangle
Projectile any object that once projected or dropped moves with its own inertia and the only force acting on it is gravity
Projectile Motion a movement of a projectile in the path of a parabola
Trajectory the path a projectile follows
Range the maximum horizontal distance a projectile travels
Relative Velocity the vector difference between the velocities of two bodies
Force a push or pull
Contact Force a push or pull resulting from physical contact
Field Force gravity or magnetism
4 Fundamental Forces weak interaction, strong interaction, gravitation, elecrtomagnetism
Inertia tendency of an object to resist a change of motion
Newton's 1st Law of Motion an object will not experience a change in motion without a net external force
Newton's 2nd Law of Motion acceleration of an object is proportional to net force and inversely proportional to the mass
Newton's 3rd Law of Motion Every action has an equal and opposite reaction
Net Force a sum of all forces acting on an object
Equilibrium the net force acting on an object is 0
Mass the quantity of matter without regard to the forces acting on it
Weight a measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object
Normal Force a force that acts from a surface in a direction perpendicular to the surface
Friction force resisting motion
Static Friction force that resists the initiation of sliding motion between two surfaces that are in contact and at rest
Kinetic Friction force opposing relative movement between two surfaces that are in contact and sliding
Coefficient of Friction ratio of friction to the normal force
Air Resistance a force caused by air pulling the object in the opposite direction
Terminal Velocity constant velocity achieved when an accelerating force is balanced by air resistance
Work product of the component of the force along with the direction of displacement and magnitude
Energy the ability to cause change
Kinetic Energy energy an object has due to motion
WKE Theorem the net work done by all forces acting on an object is equal to the change in the object's kinetic energy
Potential Energy energy associated with an object due to position, shape or condition
Gravitational Potential Energy stored in gravitational fields of interacting bodies
Spring Potential Energy energy available for use when a deformed elastic object returns to its original configuration
Spring Constant stiffness of a spring, resistance to being stretched
Mechanical Energy sum of kinetic energy and all forms of potential energy
Non-Mechanical Energy nuclear, chemical, internal, electrical energy
Conservation of Mechanical Energy in the absence of friction, the total mechanical energy of a system remains the same
Conservation of Total Energy the total energy of an isolated system remains constant, and is only just converted to other forms
Power a quantity that measures the rate at which work is done or energy is transferred (watt)
Created by: vahajuddin

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