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Gullett-Phys-Ch7-8

Physics-Ch7-8-Energy and Circular Motion

TermDefinition
work the product of the force and the distance moved by the force
power the time rate of work
work formula W = Fd (force times distance)
power formula Power = work done / time interval
energy the property of a system that enables it to do work
mechanical energy energy due to the position of something or the movement of something
potential energy energy that something possesses because of its position, a type of mechanical energy
kinetic energy energy that something possesses because of its motion, a type of mechanical energy
work-energy theorem the work done on an object equals the change in the kinetic energy of the object
law of conservation of energy energy cannot be created or destroyed; it may be transformed from one form to another, but the total amount of energy never changes
machine a device, such as a lever or pully, that increases (or decreases) a force or simply changes the direction of a force
conservation of energy the work output of any machine cannot exceed the work input
lever a simple machine consisting of a rigid rod pivoted at a fixed point called the fulcrum
efficiency the percentage of the work put into a machine that is converted into useful work output
tangential speed the linear speed tanget to a curved path, such as in circular motion
rotational speed the number of rotations or revolutions per unit of time
rotational inertia the property of an object to reisist any change in its state of rotation; if a rest, the boyd tends to remain at rest; if rotating it tends to remain rotating and will continue to do so unless acted on by an external net torque
torque the product of force and lever-arm distance, which tends to produce or change rotation:
torque formula torque = lever arm x force
center of mass the average position of the mass of an object, it moves as if all the external forces acted at this point
center of gravity the average position of weight or the single point associated with an object where the force of gravity can be considered to act
equilibrium the state of an object in which it is not acted upon by a net force or net torque
centripetal force a force directed toward a fixed point, usually the cause of circular motion
centripetal force formula F - mv^2 / r
centrifugal force an outaward force apparent in a rotating frame of reference. It is apparent (ficticious) in the sense that it is not part of an interaction but is a result of rotation
linear motion the product of the mass of an object and its linear velocity
angular momentum the product of the mass of a object and its linear velocity
conservation of angular momentum when no external torque acts on an object or a system of objects, no change of angular momentum can occur.
Created by: vahajuddin