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# Physics Unit 4

### Gravity, Rotational, & Projectile Motion

tangential speed the linear speed tangent to a curved path, such as in circular motion
rotational speed the number of rotations or revolutions per unit of time; often measured in rotations or revolutions per second or minute
rotational inertia the property of an object to resist any change in its state of rotation; if at rest, tends to stay at rest OR if rotating, tends to stay rotating unless acted upon by an external net torque
torque the product of force & lever-arm distance, which tends to produce or change rotation
center of gravity (CG) the average position of weight or the single point associated with an object where the force of gravity can be considered to act
center of mass (CM) the average position of the mass of an object
equilibrium the state of an object in which it is not acted upon by a net force or a net torque
centripetal force a force directed TOWARD a fixed point, usually the cause of circular motion
centrifugal force an OUTWARD force apparent in a rotating frame of reference; fictitious in the sense that it is not part of an interaction but is a result of rotation, with no reaction-force counterpart
linear momentum the product of the mass of an object & its linear velocity
angular momentum the product of a body's rotational inertia & rotational velocity about a particular axis
Conservation of Angular Momentum when no external torque acts on an object or a system of objects, no change of angular momentum can occur; the angular momentum before an event equals the angular momentum after an event
Law of Universal Gravitation every body in the universe attracts every other body with a force that, for two bodies, is directly proportional to the product of their masses & inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers
Inverse-Square Law a law that relates the intensity of an effect to the universe square of the distance from the cause; gravity follows this law
weight the force that an object exerts on a supporting surface which is often due to the force of gravity
weightless being without a support force, as in free fall
Spring Tides high or low tides that occur when the sun, earth, & the moon are all lined up; makes the high & low tides higher & lower than average
Neap Tides tides that occur when the moon is midway between new & full, in either direction; makes high tides lower than average & low tides higher than average
gravitational field the influence that a massive body extends into the space around itself, producing a force on another massive body; measured in N/kg
black hole a concentration of mass that results from gravitational collapse, near which gravity is so intense that not even light can escape
projectile any object that moves through the air or through space under the influence of gravity
parabola the curved path followed by a projectile under the influence of ONLY constant gravity
satellite a projectile or small celestial body that orbits a larger celestial body
ellipse the oval shaped path followed by a satellite
circle a special kind of ellipse where the foci are together at one point
escape speed the speed that a projectile must reach to escape the gravitational influence of earth or of another celestial body to which it is attracted
Kepler's First Law The path of each planet around the sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus
Kepler's Second Law the line from the sun to any planet sweeps out EQUAL areas of space in EQUAL time intervals
Kepler's Third Law the square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cube of the average distance of the planet from the sun
Created by: vahajuddin

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