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Physical Science

FINAL REVIEW - Matter and Energy

TermDefinition
Waves A disturbance or vibration, of a medium and moving through that medium.
Medium A substance through which a wave can travel. (solid, liquid, gas)
Wavelength Distance between two corresponding points of adjacent waves, such as the distance between two adjacent crests or troughs of a transverse wave.
Amplitude Maximum distance the particles of a medium move from their resting positions when a wave passes through. (This can determine how loud or quiet a sound is.)
Crest The highest point of a transverse wave.
Trough The lowest point of a transverse wave.
Compression A part of a longitudinal wave that the particles are crowded together.
Rarefaction A part of a longitudinal/compressional wave that the particles are spread apart.
Frequency The number of waves that are produced in a given amount of time. (Measured in hertz)
Longitudinal Wave A wave in which the particles of the medium vibrate parallel to the direction of the wave motion (Like a spring/back-and-forth motion). Example: Sound Waves
Transverse Wave A wave in which the particles of the medium move perpendicularly to the direction the wave is traveling (Like a wave on a rope/up-and-down motion). Example: Light Waves
Seismic Wave Waves caused by the release of energy during the shifting of tectonic plates.
Reflection The bouncing back of a ray of light, sound, or heat when the ray hits a surface it will not go into.
Absorption The intake of light energy to be converted into heat energy.
Refraction The bending of a wave as the wave passes between two substances (mediums) in which the speed of the wave differs.
Scattering The reflection of light in many different directions.
Vacuum A space that contains no matter (particles).
Electromagnetic Spectrum A range of electromagnetic radiation (waves) that are organized according to their wavelengths.
Visible Light A narrow band on the electromagnetic spectrum that allows us to see color.
Infrared Light Invisible electromagnetic radiation that can be used to detect heat.
Ultraviolet Light Invisible electromagnetic radiation that can caused damage to the skin.
Atom Particle that serves as the building blocks for all matter in the universe.
Element A pure substance that is made from a single type of atom that retains its physical and chemical properties.
Density The measure of how compact the mass in a substance or object is. (Determines if it can sink or float)
Volume The amount of space an object takes up.
Mass The amount of matter that is inside an object.
Boiling Point The temperature at which a liquid substance boils and changes to a gas as heat is added.
Melting Point The temperature at which a solid substance melts and changes to a liquid as heat is added.
Freezing Point The temperature at which a liquid substance freezes and changes to a solid as heat is removed.
Condensing Point The temperature at which a gas substance condenses and changes to a liquid as heat is removed.
Solubility The ability for a solute to dissolve in a solvent.
Solvent A substance in a solution that dissolves a solute. Example: water
Solute A substance in a solution that is being dissolved. Example: Iced tea mix, sugar.
Conduction The transfer of heat through direct contact.
Convection The transfer of heat that occurs only in liquids and gases, and is caused by the rising and falling of heated/cooled particles, generating a current. (Circulation)
Radiation The transfer of heat through wave energy.
Conductor A material that allows heat and electricity to flow through readily (or easily). Example: metals such as silver, copper, aluminum.
Insulator A material that does not allow heat and electricity to flow through readily (or easily). Example: rubber, wood, plastic, ceramic
Physical Property A characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of the sample. Example: Density, Boiling/Freezing/Melting/Condensing Points, solubility, conductivity
Chemical Property A characteristic that can be observed or measured only when matter undergoes a change to become an entirely different kind of matter. Example: flammability, reactivity
Created by: vahajuddin

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