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gas properties

the physical properties of gases

A FORCE APPLIED OVER A UNIT AREA PRESSURE
INCREASES WHEN THE APPLIED FORCE INCREASES OR THE AREA OVER WHICH IT IS APPLIED DECREASES PRESSURE
FORCE/AREA =PRESSURE
1 MOL OF GAS = 22.4 L
THE WEIGHT OF THE ATMOSPHERE PRESSING AGAINST THE EARTH'S SURFACE ATMOSPHERE PRESSURE
ATMOSPHERE PRESSURE IS MEASURED BY AN INSTRUMENT CALLED BAROMETER
1 ATM= 760 TORR = 76O MM HG
THE ACTUAL FORCE OF THE ATMOSPHERE PUSHING ON A SURFACE ARISES FROM INDIVIDUAL RAPIDLY MOVING GAS MOLECULES IN THE ATMOSPHERE BOUNCING OFF THE SURFACE ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
PRESSURE P
VOLUME V
NUMBER OF MOLES n
KELVIN TEMPERATURE T
INCREASING THE PRESSURE WILL DECREASE THE VOLUME. NUMBER OF MOLES & TEMPERATURE HELD CONSTANT.(INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL) BOYLE'S LAW
BOYLE'S LAW P1*V1=P2*V2
INCREASING THE TEMPERATURE WILL INCREASE THE VOLUME.WHEN PRESSURE & NUMBER OF MOLES OF GAS ARE HELD CONSTANT. (DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL) CHARLES'S LAW
CHARLES'S LAW V1/T1=V2/T2
GAY-LUSSAC'S LAW P1/T1=P2/T2
PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE OF A GAS WHEN THE VOLUME & NUMBER OF MOLES ARE HELD CONSTANT GAY-LUSSAC'S LAW
VOLUME OF A GAS TO THE NUMBER OF MOLES OF GAS PRESENT WHEN THE PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE ARE HELD CONSTANT AVOGADRO'S LAW
COMBINED GAS LAW P1*V1/T1=P2*V2/T2
HELPS US CALCULATE THE NEW VALUE OF ONE OF THE VARIABLES WHEN BOTH OF THE OTHERS ARE CHARGED SIMULTANEOUSLY THE COMBINED GAS LAW
THE IDEAL GAS LAW PV=nRT
PV/nT CONSTANT
UNIVERSAL GAS CONSTANT R
ALL 4 VARIABLES, P,V,n,T, CAN BE COMBINED INTO THE FOLLOWING SINGLE MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSIONS CALLED IDEAL GAS LAW
WHEN 2 DIFFERENT GASES ARE MIXED TOGETHER, THEIR BEHAVIOR IS DESCRIBED BY DALTON'S LAW OF PARTIAL PRESSURES
DALTON'S LAW OF PARTIAL PRESSURES P(total)=P(A)+P(B)
The gas consists of very small particles, all with some mass. Ideal Gas
The number of molecules is large such that statistical treatment can be applied. Ideal Gas
These molecules are in constant, random motion. The rapidly moving particles constantly collide with the walls of the container. Ideal Gas
The collisions of gas particles with the walls of the container holding them are perfectly elastic. Ideal Gas
The interactions among molecules are negligible. They exert no forces on one another except during collisions. Ideal Gas
The total volume of the individual gas molecules added up is the negligible compared to the volume of the container. The molecules are perfectly spherical in shape, and elastic in nature. Ideal Gas
The average kinetic energy of the gas particles depends only on the temperature of the system. Ideal Gas
P(atmosphere)=P(gas)+P(water) Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
General Rule: the greater gas's partial pressure in a gas mixture, the greater the extent to which that gas will dissolve in any liquid present. Henry's Law
(amount of gas dissolved/Unit volume of solvent)=C(h)* gas pressure Henry's Law for a Pure Gas
(Amount of gas dissolved/Unit volume of solvent)= C(h)* gas partial pressure Henry's Law for a Mixture of Gases
C(h) Henry's Law Constant
(amount of gas dissolved/within a unit volume of solvent)/ gas pressure =C(h)
C(h)= mL gas/mL solvent * atm
gas decreases as the temperature increases solubility
pressure (P), volume (V), temperature (T), Number of Moles (n) properties of gases
The amount of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid depends chiefly on the gas pressure & is described by Henry's law. As the gas pressure increases, more gas will dissolve. Gases in Liquids
Solid, liquid, gas 3 stages of matter
fixed volume, fixed shape solid
fixed volume, no fixed shape liquid
no fixed volume, no fixed shape gas
volumes change very little when pressure is applied solids/liquids
constituent molecules are touching but not so highly ordered solids
constituent molecules are touching but not so highly ordered liguid
constituent molecules are not touching and are highly disordered gas
molecules move at highspeeds and change directions only when they hit the walls of their container (pressure) or each other gas
do not collide often, so often, so attractive forces between molecules have little effect. gaseous molecules
energy of motion kinetic energy
kinetic energy is directly related to temperature at molecular level
opposes the attractive forces between molecules kinetic energy
a solid may melt to the corresponding liquid when heat is added melting
a liquid may feeze to the corresponding solid when heat is removed freezing
a liquid may boil to the corresponding gas when heat is added vaporization
a gas may condense to the corresponding liquid when heat is removed condensation
melting/freezing and boiling/condensation examples of phase transitions (reversible)
the total amount of heat required to melt on mole of a substance and is unique for each substance molar heat of fusion )H
the total amount of heat required to boil one mole of a substance and is also unique for each substance. The molar heat of vaporization is always much greater than the molar heat of fusion molar heat of vaporization )H
the exchange or sharing of electrons between ATOMS and IONS chemical bonds
electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another (polar) ionic bond
electrons are shared between atoms-the sharing is not always equal(Polar-equal, non polar-non equal) covalent
between inter
within intra
these forces are those responsible for holding solids and fluids together intermolecular forces
these forces are responsible for the correct folding of protein and other large biomolecules intramolecular forces
Created by: Isatta