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Stoichiometry

Chem 1100 Chapter 3 Vocabulary - Mass, Formulas, and Reactions

TermDefinition
isomers compounds with the same molecular formula but different arrangements of the atoms in their molecules
reactant a substance consumed during a chemical reaction
product a substance formed during a chemical reaction
combination reaction reaction in which 2 (or more) substances combine to form one product
mole (mol) an amount of material (atoms, ions, or molecules) that contains Avogadro's number (NA = 6.022 X 10 ^23) of particles
Avogadro's number (NA) the number of carbon atoms in exactly 12 grams of the carbon-12 isotope; NA = 6.022 X 10 ^ 23. it is the number of particles in 1 mole
Molar mass (M) the mass of 1 mole o a substance. The molar mass of an element in grams per mole is numerically equal to that element's average atomic mass in atomic mass units
molecular mass the mass of one molecule of a molecular compound
formula mass the mass of one formula unit of an ionic compound
stoichiometry the quantitative relation between reactants and products in a chemical reaction
law of conservation of mass the principle that the sum of the mass of reactants in a chemical reaction is equal to the sum of masses of the products
combustion reaction a heat-producing reaction between oxygen and another element or compound
percent composition the composition of a compound expressed in terms of the percentage by mass of each element in the compound
mass spectrometer an instrument that separates and counts ions according to the mass-to-charge ratios
molecule ion (M+) the peak of highest mass in a mass spectrum; it has the same mass as the molecule from which it came
mass spectrum a graph of the data from a mass spectrometer, where m/z ratios of the deflected particles with a particular mass
combustion analysis a laboratory procedure for determining the composition of a substance by burning it completely in oxygen to produce known compounds whose masses are used to determine the composition of the original material
limiting reactant a reactant that is consumed completely in a chemical reaction. The amount of product formed depends on the amount of the limiting reactant available
theoretical yield the maximum amount of product possible in a chemical reaction for given quantities of reactant: also called stoichiometric yield
actual yield the amount of product obtained from a chemical reaction, which is often less than the theoretical yield
percent yield the ratio, expressed as a percentage, of the actual yield of a chemical reaction to the theoretical yield
Created by: elizabethcosio