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Atom, Ion, Molecule

Chem 1100 Chapter 2 Vocabulary

TermDefinition
radioactivity the spontaneous emission of high-energy radiation and particles by materials
cathode ratys streams of electrons emitted by the cathode in a partially evacuated tube
electron a subatomic particle that has a negative charge and little mass
beta (β) particle a radioactive emission equivalent to a high-energy electron
alpha (α) particle a radioactive emission with a charge of 2+ and a mass equivalent to that of a helium nucleus
nucleus the positively charged center of an atom that contains nearly all the atom's mass
proton a positively charged subatomic particle present in the nucleus of an atom
neutron an electrically neutral (uncharged) subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom
atomic mass unit (amu) unit used to express the relative masses of atoms and subatomic particles; it is exactly 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon with 5 protons and 6 neutrons in its nucleus
dalton (Da) a unit of mass identical to 1 atomic mass unit
isotopes atoms of an element containing different numbers of neutrons
atomic number (Z) the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
nucleon either a proton or a neutron in a nucleus
mass number (A) the number of nucleons in an atom
periodic table of elements a chart of the elements arranged in order to their atomic numbers and in a pattern based on their physical and chemical properties
nuclide an atom with particular number of neutrons and protons in its nucleus
average atomic mass a weighted average of the masses of all isotopes of an element, calculated by multiplying the natural abundance of each isotope by its mass in atomic mass units and then summing these products
natrual abundance the proportion of a particular isotope, usually expressed as a percentage, relative to all the isotopes of that element in a natural sample
period a horizontal row in the periodic table
group all the elements in the same column of the periodic table; also called family
metals the elements on the left side of the periodic table that are typically shiny solids that conduct heat and electricity we;; and are malleable and ductile
nonmetals elements with properties opposite those of metals, including poor conductivity of heat and electricity
metalloids (aka semimetals) elements along the border between metals and nonmetals in the periodic table; they have some metallic and some nonmetallic properties
main group elements (aka representative elements) the elemtns in groups 1, 2, and 13 through 18 of the periodic table
transition metals the elements in groups 3 - 12 of the periodic table
halogens the elements in group 17 of the periodic table
alkali metals the elements in group 1 of the periodic table
alkaline earth metals the elements in group 2 of the periodic table
noble gases the elements in group 18 of the periodic table
law of multiple proportions the principle that, when two masses of one element react with a given mass of another element to form two different compounds, the two masses of the first element have a ratio of two small whole numbers
molecular compound a compound composed of molecules that contain the atoms of two or more elements
covalent bond bond between two atoms created by sharing one or more pairs of electrons
molecular formula a notation showing the number and type of atoms present in one molecule of a molecular compound
ionic compound a compound composed of positively and negatively charged ions held together by electrostatic attraction
empirical formula a formula showing the smallest whole-number ratio of the elements in a compound
formula unit the smallest electrically neutral unit of an ionic compound
polyatomic ion a charged group of two or more atoms joined by covalent bonds
oxoanion a polyatomic ion that contains oxygen in combination with one or more other elements
organic compound a molecule containing carbon atoms whose structure typically consists of carbon-carbon bonds and carbon=hydrogen bonds, and may include one of more heteroatoms such as O, N, S, P, or the halogens
heteroatom atom of an element other than carbon and hydrogen within a molecule of an organic compound
organic chemistry the study of organic compounds
hydrocarbon an organic compound whose molecules are composed only of carbon and hydrogen atoms
alkane a hydrocarbon in which all the bonds are single bonds
alkene a hydrocarbon containing one or more carbon-carbon double bonds
alkyne a hydrocarbon containing one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds
alcohol an organic compound containing the OH functional group
functional group a group of atoms in the molecular structure of an organic compound that imparts characteristic chemical and physical properties
quarks elementary particles that combine to form neutrons and protons
nucleosynthesis the natural formation of nuclei as a result of fusion and other nuclear processes
neutron capture the absorption of a neutron by a nucleus
beta (β) decay a spontaneous process by which a neutron in a radioactive nuclide is transformed into a proton and emits a high-energy electron (β particle)
Created by: elizabethcosio