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Particles of Matter

Chem 1100 Chapter 1 Vocabulary

TermDefinition
mass the property that defines the quantity of matter in an object
matter anything that has mass and occupies space
chemistry the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter, and of the energy consumed or given off when matter undergoes a change
substance matter that has a constant composition and cannot be broken down to simpler matter by any physical process; also called a pure substance
physical process a transformation of a sample of matter, such as a change in its physical state, that does not alter the chemical identity of any substance in the sample
element a pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances
compound a pure substance that is composed of 2 or more elements bonded together in fixed proportions and that can be broken down into those elements by a chemical reaction
chemical reaction the transformation of one or more substances into different substances
mixture a combination of pure substances in variable proportions in which the individual substances retain their chemical identities and can be separated from one another by a physical process
homogeneous mixture a mixture in which the components are distributed uniformly throughout and have no visible boundaries of regions
solution another name for a homogeneous mixture. Solutions are often liquids, but they may also be solids or gases
heterogeneous mixture a mixture in which the components are not distributed uniformly, so that the mixture contains distinct regions of different compositions
atom the smallest particle of an element that cannot be chemically or mechanically divided into smaller particles
molecule a collection of atoms chemically bonded together in characteristic proportions
chemical bond a force that holds two atoms or ions in a compound together
chemical formula notation for representing elements and compounds; consists of symbols of the constituent elements and subscripts identifying the number of atoms of each element present
chemical equation notation in which chemical formulas express the identities and their coefficients express the quantities of substances involved in a chemical equation
energy the capacity to do work
law of constant composition the principle that all samples of a particular compound contain the same elements combined in the same proportions
ion a particle consisting of one or more atoms that has a net positive or negative electrical charge
cation an ion with a positive charge
anion an ion with a negative charge
intensive property a property that is independent of the amount of substance present
extensive property a property that varies with the quantity of the substance present
physical property a property of a substance that can be observed without changing it into another substance
density (d) the ratio of the mass (m) of an object to its volume (v)
chemical property a property of a substance that can be observed only by reacting it to form another substance
solid a form of matter that has a definite shape and volume
liquid a form of matter that occupies a definite volume but flows to assume the shape of its container
gas a form of matter that has neither definite volume nor shape and that expands to fill its container; also called vapor
sublimation transformation of a solid directly into a vapor (gas)
deposition transformation of a vapor (gas) directly into a solid
scientific method an approach to acquiring knowledge based on observation of phenomena, development of a testable hypothesis, and additional experiments that test the validity of the hypothesis
hypothesis a tentative and testable explanation for an observation or a series of observations
scientific theory (model) a general explanation of a widely observed phenomenon that has been extensively tested and validated
meter standard unit of length, equivalent to 39.37 inches
conversion factor a fraction in which the numerator is equivalent to the denominator, even through they are expressed in different units, making the value of the fraction one
significant figures all the certain digits in a measured value plus one estimated digit. the greater the number of significant figures, the greater the certainty with which the value is known
precision agreement between the results of multiple measurements that were carried out in the same way
accuracy agreement between one or more experimental values and the true value
mean (arithmetic mean, x) an average calculated by summing a set of related values and dividing the sum by the number of values in the set
standard deviation (s) measurement of the amount of variation, or dispersion, in a set of related values
confidence interval a range of values that has a specified probability of containing the true value of a measurement
outlier a data point that is distant from the other observations
Grubb's test a statistical test used to detect an outlier in a set of data
kelvin (K) the SI unit of temperature
absolute zero (0 K) the zero point of the Kelvin temprature scale; theoretically the lowest temperature possible
Created by: elizabethcosio