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# SciencePhysicsFinal

### FMG: heat, pressure, energy, acceleration, distance & time, forces, etc.

Yes/No: Is this your only method of studying for the final exam? No: good job Yes: You really shouldn't. Use the mimio slides, your notebook you should be taking notes in, worksheets, and old tests. Good luck!
If an object is resting, what does it look like on a distance and time graph? a straight line
What axis is time shown on? The x-axis.
What does the slope of a line show you? How fast one variable changes in relation to another variable
Line 1 is steeper than Line 2. Which line is traveling faster? Line 1 because it is steeper.
True or False: An object traveling at constant speed will have a constant slope. True
How do you find the slope of a line? Rise (y) over run (x). Compare two points, find the difference if the y and x values.
If an object moves 2 m/s, how many meters does it move in 10 seconds? 20 meters. 2 m/s means it moves 2 meters per second. You need to multiply it (2) by 10 (seconds).
What is motion? state in which an object’s distance from another is changing
What is velocity? Rate of change of position in a given direction. Terminal velocity is an object's greatest velocity, or when air resistance equals the force of gravity. unit: m/s (meters per second)
What is acceleration? Rate at which velocity changes (a change in speed or direction) unit: m/s^2
What is the formula for acceleration? Final velocity-initial velocity divided by time
What is a force? Push/pull upon an object resulting from the object’s interaction with another object. Forces have size and direction. They affect how an object moves. They can move in the same or opposite direction. unit: N
What are balanced forces? Equal forces acting on an object in opposite directions. They do not change the current state of motion. Imagine two identical cars pushing against each other with the SAME amount of force. They don't move because of BALANCED forces.
What are unbalanced forces? They cause an object to start or stop moving, or change direction. They change an object’s motion.
True/False: You need balanced forces to push a chair. False. If it is balanced, the equal force from you and the chair would result in it not moving. If you had unbalanced force, you being the greater force, it would move.
What is the force of 10-> and <-5? Will this object move? 5->. You have to do 10-5=5. (If objects move in opposite directions, like these, subtract. If they move in the same directions, add). It will move because it has unbalanced forces.
What is net force? Overall sum force on an object.
What is contact force? Interacting objects are physically contacting each other (friction, tension, air resistance, and applied forces)
What is action-at-a-distance force? Result even when two interacting objects are not in physical contact with each other, yet are able to exert a push/pull despite their physical separation (gravity, electrical, and magnet forces).
What unit is force measured in? Newtons (N).
What is normal force? Support force exerted upon an object that is in contact with another stable object. (A book resting on a table exerts force on the table. The table does, too, to support the book's weight.)
What is friction? force on surface exerts on another when the two surfaces rub against each other. When they rub, their textures or irregularities get caught in each other. It depends on types of surfaces and how hard they push. They oppose motion.
What is sliding friction? when a solid surfaces slides on another (pushing a chair on the ground)
What is rolling friction? when an object rolls over another surface (rolling blades on the ground)
What is fluid friction? when an object moves through gas or liquid (swimming)
What is static friction? frictional resistance a stationary object must overcome to be set in motion (pushing a boulder).
What is kinetic friction? frictional resistance that opposes motion
What is thrust? force which moves an aircraft through air
What is air resistance? fluid friction (opposite to motion) resulting from collisions between the object's leading surface and air molecules. The amount of air resistance depends on the speed of an object and its surface area. It is an upward force and increases with velocity.
What is gravity? attractive force which pulls two things towards each other. Anything with mass has gravity. (A human being attracted to Earth)
What is the Law of Universal Gravitation? the force of gravity acts between all objects in the universe. It depends on mass and distance.
What is free fall? when an object is only being acted upon by gravity. Free-falling objects do not experience air/fluid resistance. All free-falling objects accelerate towards Earth at a rate of 9.8m/s^2.
A bowling ball and feather falling. Which one lands first? The bowling bowl will land first. If in free fall, they will land at the same time since they both go down at the same rate.
What is a projectile? object upon which the only force acting is gravity
What is projectile motion? motion associated with the projectile
What is trajectory? the path followed by a projectile (directly influenced by gravity). Gravity only causes vertical acceleration.
What is Newton's first law? an object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion (with the same speed and direction) unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
What is inertia? resistance an object has to a change in its state of motion. It is a physical property of matter. Greater mass means greater inertia.
What are examples of Newton's first law? A hockey puck on ice will keep sliding until something stops it, like friction. A ball kicked in space will keep going because of the lack of gravity, friction, and air resistance. In a car accident, your car will stop while you keep going
What is Newton's second law? the acceleration of an object as produced by a net force is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force (in the same direction) and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.
More stuff on Newton's second law Acceleration is produced when an unbalanced force acts on an object more force results in more acceleration, more mass results in less acceleration
What is an example of Newton's second law? A shopping cart filled with stuff is needs more force than an empty shopping cart because it has more mass.
What is the formula for force? mass • acceleration measured in N (Newtons)
What is the formula for acceleration? force/mass measured in m/s^2 (meters per second squared)
What is Newton's third law? for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. Forces always come in pairs: equal and opposite action-reaction. The size of the force on the first object equals that of the second object's. The directions of the forces are opposite.
What are examples of Newton's third law? When air rushes out of a balloon (action), it pushes the balloon up in the opposite direction and same amount of force (reaction). When bumper cars hit each other and fly in different directions.
What is momentum? quantity of motion. It describes the energy of a moving mass. more mass or velocity = more momentum more momentum, the harder the object is to stop
What is the formula for momentum? P=mv or mass•velocity unit: kg•m/s kg=mass m/s=velocity
If a garbage truck and a unicycle roll down a hill at the same speed, which would be easier to stop? The unicycle since it has less mass
Can a bullet have more more momentum than a car? yes. Although it does not have much mass, it could have a greater velocity than the car. Remember more mass or velocity = more momentum
What is the Law of Conservation of Momentum? the total momentum of objects in an interaction does not change (except friction).
What is an example of the Law of Conservation of Momentum? Rolling an identical bowling bowl at 10 kg m/s to a still bowling ball. At the point of contact, the resting ball will have a momentum of 10 kg m/s, while the first ball will have zero. They switch their values after contact.
Do you want to study pressure? Well, I made a study guide on it already, and I am not going to copy and paste everything on here. Good luck!
What is work? exerting a force on an object that causes it to move some distance, like pushing someone off a swing, or defenestrating (throwing somethings out the window is force). To do work, the force must be exerted in the same direction as the object's motion.
What is the formula for work? Work = force•distance Unit: joules (J)
If you push an apple 0meters, with a force of 5N, what is the work? Nothing. There is only work when force moves the object. In this case, the object did not move.
True/False: You exert more force of you exert it in the direction of the object's motion. True
What is mechanical advantage? the number of times a force exerted on a machine is multiplied by the machine
What is the formula for mechanical advantage? Mechanical Advantage = output force / input force Unit: none
Why is there no unit of mechanical advantage? You are dividing a force by a force. The Newtons cancel each other out.
How does mechanical advantage affect force and distance? It multiplies force if the MA is greater than 1 It multiplies distance if the MA is less than 1 It changes direction if the MA is equal to 1
What are the two basic kinds of energy? Kinetic and potential
What is kinetic energy? energy of motion (moving). More mass/velocity, more kinetic energy like throwing a ball, or boiling water
What is potential energy? stored energy of position possessed by an object. "held in readiness" a ball placed on a shelf
What is the formula for kinetic energy? kinetic energy = mass•velocity^2 / 2 Unit: J (for work and energy)
What is gravitational potential energy? potential energy that depends on height. It is equal to the work done to lift it. gravitational potential energy = weight•height
What is mechanical energy? energy associated with the motion or position of an object like fish swimming (they have motion)
What is thermal energy? The total energy (is affected by number of particles, particle arrangement, and temperature) of all particles. They have potential and kinetic energy. like feeling the thermal energy from a hot cup
What is chemical energy? potential energy stored in chemical bonds that hold chemical compounds together chocolate, wood, wax, matches
What is electrical energy? moving electrical charges that produce energy batteries, power lines, etc
What is electromagnetic energy? light energy waves that have electrical and magnetic properties like lamps, microwaves, etc
What is nuclear energy? potential energy stored in the nucleus of an atom, released during nuclear reactions.
What is elastic energy? A force acting on an object may cause the shape of an object to change. They can store potential energy. This is like bumping into someone- you both bounce apart.
What is inelastic collision? objects that stick together post collision, like cars crashing into each other.
What are three methods of heat transference? conduction, convection, and radiation
What is conduction? When solids touch and transfer energy. The molecules in one substance excite the molecules in the other without the substances moving themselves. The better the conductor, the more rapidly heat will transfer.
What is an example of conduction? A metal spoon in hot pot. The fast particles in the pot will collide with the slow ones from the spoon. As the particles move faster, the hotter the spoon will be.
What is a conductor? Material/Substance which transfers thermal energy easily, like graphite, metals, etc.
What is an insulator? Material/Substance which cannot transfer thermal energy easily, like glass, air, rubber, clothes, etc.
What is convection? When fluids touch and transfer thermal energy. Warm fluids expand, become less dense and float. Cold fluids do the opposite. This cooling and warming, and contracting and expanded creates convection currents which almost act like conveyor belts.
What is a convection current? Flow created when less dense, hot water moves to the top, and denser cold water moves to the top.
What is the difference between conduction and convection? Conduction transfers thermal energy by solids. Convection does it by fluids.
What is radiation? Movement of thermal energy from one object to another via electromagnetic rays, and is not dependent on there being some matter between these two objects. It spreads in all directions. The hotter an object, the more it energy it radiates.
What is an example of radiation? Feeling thermal energy from a lamp, light traveling from the sun to Earth, etc.
What is temperature? The measure of the average kinetic energy of the individual particles in an object. They are always moving. The faster they are (or the more kinetic energy they have), the hotter the object is.
What are the three temperature scales? Fahrenheit (32, 212, -460), Celsius (0, 100, -273), and Kelvin (273, 373, 0) (Freezes, boils, absolute zero)
What are the three points that define temperature? Freezing and boiling point, and absolute zero.
Why doesn’t the Kelvin scale have any negative numbers? Its absolute zero is 0 and no number can be colder than absolute zero.
Which scale is more accurate when written as an integer? Fahrenheit because the degrees are smaller.
What is thermal energy? The total energy (is affected by number of particles, particle arrangement, and temperature) of all particles.
Do hot or cold objects have more thermal energy? generally, hot objects do.
How can a cold bowl and hot bowl have the same thermal energy? The cold bowl can have more particles than the hot bowl.
What is heat? Is the transfer of thermal energy from a hot object to a colder one. Objects can’t have heat- they have thermal energy. It is transferred by radiation, convection, and conduction.
What is the difference between temperature and thermal energy? Temperature: average of thermal/kinetic energy Thermal Energy: total energy
What is work and heat measure in? Joules (J)
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