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# Physics final

### Includes terms for final

Term | Definition |
---|---|

Momentum | Product of the mass and velocity of an object |

Impulse | Product of force and time over which a force acts |

Impulse-Momentum Theorem | Lengthening the duration of an impact reduces the force of the impact. |

Law of Conservation of Momentum | The total momentum of all objects interacting with one another remains constant regardless of the nature of the forces between the objects. |

Inelastic collision | A collision in which two objects stick together completely after colliding. |

Elastic collision | A collision in which the total momentum and kinetic energy are conserved. |

Rotational motion | Movement in a circle or spinning. |

Centrifugal Force | Imaginary outward force felt by observers moving in a circular path. |

Radian | Angle formed when the arc length is equal to the radius of a circle. |

Angular displacement | Change in angle, rotational counterpart to ΔX. |

Angular Speed | Rate at which an object moves through an angle. |

Angular Acceleration | Rate of change in angular speed, rotational counterpart to linear acceleration. |

Rotational kinematics | Applying kinematic equations to rotational problems. |

Centripetal acceleration | Acceleration toward the center of the circle. |

Centripetal Force | Net force acting towards the center of a circle keeping an object moving in a circular path. |

Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation | A particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers. |

Kepler's 2nd Law of Planetary Motion | An imaginary line drawn from the sun to any planet sweeps out equal areas in equal time intervals. |

Kepler's 3rd Law of Planetary Motion | The square of a planet's orbital period is proportional to the cube of the average distance between the planet and the sun. |

Escape Velocity | The minimum velocity an object must have to escape the gravitational attraction of a planet. |

Black Hole | Formed when the escape speed of a star exceeds the speed of light. |

Kepler's 1st Law of Planetary motion | Each planet travels in an elliptical orbit around the sun with the sun at one of the focal points. |

Center of Gravity | Point at which the mass of a body can be considered to be concentrated when analyzing translational motion. |

Torque | A quantity that measures the ability of a force to rotate an object about some axis rotational counterpart to force. |

Lever Arm | r(sinθ) or d(sinθ). |

Rotational Equilibrium | Force net=0 and Torque net=0 |

Moment of Inertia | Tendency of an object to resist a change in rotational movement. At a max when mass is far from the center, decreases as it moves towards center. rotational counterpart to mass. |

Newton's 2nd Law Applied to Rotation | Torque= moment of inertia x angular acceleration. |

Angular Momentum | Product of moment of inertia and angular speed. |

Conservation of Angular Momentum | Lowering the moment of inertia will increase angular speed. |

Translational Kinetic Energy | 1/2 x mass x velocity^2 |

Rotational Kinetic Energy | 1/2 x moment of inertia x angular speed ^2 |

Fluid | a non-solid state of matter in which the atoms or molecules are free to flow. Liquids have definite volume, gases do not. |

Mass Density | Concentration of matter in an object. Solids and gases nearly incompressible, gases are compressible. |

Buoyant force | Upward force exerted by a fluid on an object immersed in or floating on the fluid. |

Pressure | Magnitude of the force on a surface per unit area. |

Archimedes' Principle | An object completely or partially submerged in a fluid experiences an upward buoyant force equal in magnitude to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. |

Pascal's Principle | Pressure applied to a fluid in a closed container is transmitted equally to every point of the fluid and to the walls of the container. |

Barometer | Device used for measuring air pressure. |

Ideal Fluid | A fluid with no internal friction. |

Bernoulli's Principle | The pressure in a fluid decreases as the velocity of the fluid increases. |

Ideal Gas Law | (P1 x V1)/T1=(P2 x V2)/T2 |

Temperature | Measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance. |

Internal Energy | The energy of a substance due to both the random motion of its particles and the potential energy that results from the distances between the particles. |

Thermal Equillibrium | The state in which two bodies in physical contact with one another have identical temperatures. |

Heat | Energy transferred between objects because of a difference in temperature. |

Specific Heat Capacity | The quantity of heat required to raise a unit mass of homogeneous material 1 K given constant pressure and volume. |

Calorimetry | An experimental procedure used to measure the energy transferred from one substance to another as heat. |

Phase Change | A physical change in a substance from one state of matter to another at constant temperature and pressure. |

Latent Heat | The energy per unit mass that is transferred during a phase change of a substance. |

Hooke's Law | The restoring force of a spring depends on the stiffness of the spring and the displacement from the spring's equilibrium point. |

Simple Harmonic Motion | Vibration about an equilibrium position in which a restoring force is proportional to the displacement from equilibrium. |

Venturi Effect | The speed of a fluid increases when cross sectional area decreases. |

Flow Rate | Product of area times velocity for a fluid in a pipe, constant throughout the pipe. |

Thermal Expansion | In general, increasing the temperature of a substance increases its volume. |

Coefficient of Volume Expansion | Quantity that relates the change in volume of an object to a change in temperature. Gases have highest, solids have lowest. |

Thermal Conduction | Transfer of heat through direct contact. |

Thermal Conductors | Substances that rapidly transfer energy as heat. |

Thermal Insulators | Substances that slowly transfer energy as heat. |

Convection | Transfer of heat that involves bulk movement of matter. |

Radiation | Transfer of energy through electromagnetic waves. |

Amplitude | The maximum displacement from equilibrium. |

Period | The time it takes a complete cycle to occur. |

Frequency | The number of cycles or vibrations per unit of time. |

Wave | Undulation or disturbance that transfers energy. |

Medium | Physical environment through which a disturbance can travel. |

Pulse wave | A wave that consists of a single traveling pulse. |

Transverse wave | A wave whose particles vibrate perpendicularly to the direction the wave is traveling. |

Crest | Highest point above equilibrium position |

Trough | Lowest point below equilibrium position. |

Wavelength | Distance between two adjacent similar points. |

Longitudinal wave | A wave whose particles vibrate parallel to the direction the wave is traveling. |

Compression | Region of a longitudinal wave in which the density and pressure is at a maximum. |

Rarefaction | Region of a longitudinal wave in which the density and pressure is at a minimum. |

Interference | The combination of two overlapping waves (superposition) |

Constructive Interference | A superposition of two or more waves in which individual displacements on the same side of the equilibrium position are added together to make the resultant wave. |

Destructive interference | A superposition of two or more waves in which individual displacements on opposite sides of the equilibrium position are added together to make the resultant wave. |

Reflection | Fixed or free boundary. |

Standing Wave | A wave pattern that results when two waves of the same frequency, wavelength and amplitude travel in opposite directions and interfere. |

Node | A point in a standing wave that maintains zero displacement. |

Antinode | A point in a standing wave, halfway between two nodes, at which the largest displacement occurs. |

Infrasonic Waves | Sound waves with frequencies below 20 Hz |

Ultrasonic Waves | Sound waves with frequencies above 20,000 Hz |

Pitch | A measure of how low or high a sound is perceived, depending on the frequency of the sound wave. |

Doppler Effect | An observed change in frequency when there is relative motion between the source of waves and an observer. |

Intensity | The rate at which energy flows through a unit area perpendicular to to the direction of wave motion. |

Decibel | A dimensionless unit that describes the ratio of two intensities of sound; the threshold of hearing is commonly used as the reference intensity. |

Resonance | A phenomenon that occurs when the frequency of a force applied to a system matches the natural frequency of vibration of the system, resulting in a large amplitude of vibration. |

Timbre | The musical quality of a tone resulting from the combination of harmonics present at different intensities (sound quality). |

Beat | The periodic variation in the amplitude of a wave that is the superposition of two waves of different frequencies. |

Reverberation time | The amount of time it takes for the intensity of a sound echo to decrease by 60 dB. |

Periodic wave | Wave formed by the periodic motion of a wave source. |

Sound Waves | Compression waves produced by vibrating objects. |

Subsonic | Slower than the speed of sound. |

Supersonic | Faster than the speed of sound. |

Sonic Boom | Loud sound produced when an object travels faster than the speed of sound (successive compressions combine together) |

Mach number | Multiple of speed of sound for a moving object. |

Forced vibration | When objects are connected, vibrations in one object will be transferred to others, causing them to vibrate. |

Sympathetic vibrations | The vibrations that occur because of other vibrating objects. |

Natural Frequency | The frequency at which an object will vibrate when set in motion. |

Fundamental frequency | The lowest frequency of vibration of a standing wave. |

Harmonics | Integral multiples of the fundamental frequency (overtones). |

Harmonic series | A series of frequencies that includes the fundamental frequency and successive harmonics. |

Created by:
19kimmay