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# Physics final

### Includes terms for final

TermDefinition
Momentum Product of the mass and velocity of an object
Impulse Product of force and time over which a force acts
Impulse-Momentum Theorem Lengthening the duration of an impact reduces the force of the impact.
Law of Conservation of Momentum The total momentum of all objects interacting with one another remains constant regardless of the nature of the forces between the objects.
Inelastic collision A collision in which two objects stick together completely after colliding.
Elastic collision A collision in which the total momentum and kinetic energy are conserved.
Rotational motion Movement in a circle or spinning.
Centrifugal Force Imaginary outward force felt by observers moving in a circular path.
Radian Angle formed when the arc length is equal to the radius of a circle.
Angular displacement Change in angle, rotational counterpart to ΔX.
Angular Speed Rate at which an object moves through an angle.
Angular Acceleration Rate of change in angular speed, rotational counterpart to linear acceleration.
Rotational kinematics Applying kinematic equations to rotational problems.
Centripetal acceleration Acceleration toward the center of the circle.
Centripetal Force Net force acting towards the center of a circle keeping an object moving in a circular path.
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation A particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.
Kepler's 2nd Law of Planetary Motion An imaginary line drawn from the sun to any planet sweeps out equal areas in equal time intervals.
Kepler's 3rd Law of Planetary Motion The square of a planet's orbital period is proportional to the cube of the average distance between the planet and the sun.
Escape Velocity The minimum velocity an object must have to escape the gravitational attraction of a planet.
Black Hole Formed when the escape speed of a star exceeds the speed of light.
Kepler's 1st Law of Planetary motion Each planet travels in an elliptical orbit around the sun with the sun at one of the focal points.
Center of Gravity Point at which the mass of a body can be considered to be concentrated when analyzing translational motion.
Torque A quantity that measures the ability of a force to rotate an object about some axis rotational counterpart to force.
Lever Arm r(sinθ) or d(sinθ).
Rotational Equilibrium Force net=0 and Torque net=0
Moment of Inertia Tendency of an object to resist a change in rotational movement. At a max when mass is far from the center, decreases as it moves towards center. rotational counterpart to mass.
Newton's 2nd Law Applied to Rotation Torque= moment of inertia x angular acceleration.
Angular Momentum Product of moment of inertia and angular speed.
Conservation of Angular Momentum Lowering the moment of inertia will increase angular speed.
Translational Kinetic Energy 1/2 x mass x velocity^2
Rotational Kinetic Energy 1/2 x moment of inertia x angular speed ^2
Fluid a non-solid state of matter in which the atoms or molecules are free to flow. Liquids have definite volume, gases do not.
Mass Density Concentration of matter in an object. Solids and gases nearly incompressible, gases are compressible.
Buoyant force Upward force exerted by a fluid on an object immersed in or floating on the fluid.
Pressure Magnitude of the force on a surface per unit area.
Archimedes' Principle An object completely or partially submerged in a fluid experiences an upward buoyant force equal in magnitude to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.
Pascal's Principle Pressure applied to a fluid in a closed container is transmitted equally to every point of the fluid and to the walls of the container.
Barometer Device used for measuring air pressure.
Ideal Fluid A fluid with no internal friction.
Bernoulli's Principle The pressure in a fluid decreases as the velocity of the fluid increases.
Ideal Gas Law (P1 x V1)/T1=(P2 x V2)/T2
Temperature Measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance.
Internal Energy The energy of a substance due to both the random motion of its particles and the potential energy that results from the distances between the particles.
Thermal Equillibrium The state in which two bodies in physical contact with one another have identical temperatures.
Heat Energy transferred between objects because of a difference in temperature.
Specific Heat Capacity The quantity of heat required to raise a unit mass of homogeneous material 1 K given constant pressure and volume.
Calorimetry An experimental procedure used to measure the energy transferred from one substance to another as heat.
Phase Change A physical change in a substance from one state of matter to another at constant temperature and pressure.
Latent Heat The energy per unit mass that is transferred during a phase change of a substance.
Hooke's Law The restoring force of a spring depends on the stiffness of the spring and the displacement from the spring's equilibrium point.
Simple Harmonic Motion Vibration about an equilibrium position in which a restoring force is proportional to the displacement from equilibrium.
Venturi Effect The speed of a fluid increases when cross sectional area decreases.
Flow Rate Product of area times velocity for a fluid in a pipe, constant throughout the pipe.
Thermal Expansion In general, increasing the temperature of a substance increases its volume.
Coefficient of Volume Expansion Quantity that relates the change in volume of an object to a change in temperature. Gases have highest, solids have lowest.
Thermal Conduction Transfer of heat through direct contact.
Thermal Conductors Substances that rapidly transfer energy as heat.
Thermal Insulators Substances that slowly transfer energy as heat.
Convection Transfer of heat that involves bulk movement of matter.
Radiation Transfer of energy through electromagnetic waves.
Amplitude The maximum displacement from equilibrium.
Period The time it takes a complete cycle to occur.
Frequency The number of cycles or vibrations per unit of time.
Wave Undulation or disturbance that transfers energy.
Medium Physical environment through which a disturbance can travel.
Pulse wave A wave that consists of a single traveling pulse.
Transverse wave A wave whose particles vibrate perpendicularly to the direction the wave is traveling.
Crest Highest point above equilibrium position
Trough Lowest point below equilibrium position.
Wavelength Distance between two adjacent similar points.
Longitudinal wave A wave whose particles vibrate parallel to the direction the wave is traveling.
Compression Region of a longitudinal wave in which the density and pressure is at a maximum.
Rarefaction Region of a longitudinal wave in which the density and pressure is at a minimum.
Interference The combination of two overlapping waves (superposition)
Constructive Interference A superposition of two or more waves in which individual displacements on the same side of the equilibrium position are added together to make the resultant wave.
Destructive interference A superposition of two or more waves in which individual displacements on opposite sides of the equilibrium position are added together to make the resultant wave.
Reflection Fixed or free boundary.
Standing Wave A wave pattern that results when two waves of the same frequency, wavelength and amplitude travel in opposite directions and interfere.
Node A point in a standing wave that maintains zero displacement.
Antinode A point in a standing wave, halfway between two nodes, at which the largest displacement occurs.
Infrasonic Waves Sound waves with frequencies below 20 Hz
Ultrasonic Waves Sound waves with frequencies above 20,000 Hz
Pitch A measure of how low or high a sound is perceived, depending on the frequency of the sound wave.
Doppler Effect An observed change in frequency when there is relative motion between the source of waves and an observer.
Intensity The rate at which energy flows through a unit area perpendicular to to the direction of wave motion.
Decibel A dimensionless unit that describes the ratio of two intensities of sound; the threshold of hearing is commonly used as the reference intensity.
Resonance A phenomenon that occurs when the frequency of a force applied to a system matches the natural frequency of vibration of the system, resulting in a large amplitude of vibration.
Timbre The musical quality of a tone resulting from the combination of harmonics present at different intensities (sound quality).
Beat The periodic variation in the amplitude of a wave that is the superposition of two waves of different frequencies.
Reverberation time The amount of time it takes for the intensity of a sound echo to decrease by 60 dB.
Periodic wave Wave formed by the periodic motion of a wave source.
Sound Waves Compression waves produced by vibrating objects.
Subsonic Slower than the speed of sound.
Supersonic Faster than the speed of sound.
Sonic Boom Loud sound produced when an object travels faster than the speed of sound (successive compressions combine together)
Mach number Multiple of speed of sound for a moving object.
Forced vibration When objects are connected, vibrations in one object will be transferred to others, causing them to vibrate.
Sympathetic vibrations The vibrations that occur because of other vibrating objects.
Natural Frequency The frequency at which an object will vibrate when set in motion.
Fundamental frequency The lowest frequency of vibration of a standing wave.
Harmonics Integral multiples of the fundamental frequency (overtones).
Harmonic series A series of frequencies that includes the fundamental frequency and successive harmonics.
Created by: 19kimmay

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